Tuesday, 31 July 2012

Start a Candle Holder Making Business

  
(353). Start a Candle Holder Making Business
If you thought candles were headed towards extinction after the invention of the bulb, you were dead wrong! In fact, despite the availability of generators to bypass the dilemma of black outs, candles are still pretty much in vogue! Candles make an admirable fashion statement with regard to the d├ęcor of elegant homes. Such has been the popularity and demand of stylish candles that it has sparked a raging demand for fancy and exotic candle holders. The market, today, is flooded with thousands and thousands of exquisitely designed candle holders! However, if your budget is tight and you have a passion for craft, you could get busy crafting your very own homemade candle holder! Dig out the surplus paraphernalia around your home and get creative! Not only will you be saving money, but you can flaunt a unique and beautiful piece of art to all the visitors stepping in and out of your dwelling.Candles bring a warm and welcoming atmosphere to any room, and also act as air fresheners. They help to draw attention to any focal point in a room, while helping to relieve stress.Many of those customers are looking for creative and unusual candle holders. Selling candle holders can be a good business if you know where to start and how to market your product.


   

INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS 
Cost of Materials*  
                                               
               Materials                                                                                                          Cost 
A.     For the candle holder 1 terra cotta pot (3 inches deep and 9 inches wide).               Php 30.50 
   • 1 wood/bamboo cut in 3 inches with a diameter of 2 inches. This will serve 
 as the handle of the candle.                                                                                                1.50 
• 1 candle as big as the wooden handle.                                                                              30.00 


B. For the trimmings 
• 2 pieces of 31 inches braided buri strip 
                                                                                                                                        13.00 
• 5 gold-painted pine cones with stems made of wire 
                                                                                                                                        38.00 
• 8 strips of 6 inches paper twine                                                                                         1.75 
• 6  pieces of 3.5 inches christmas garland 
                                                                                                                                         2.50 
• Gold dust                                                                                                                        10.00 
• 3 big and 6 small pieces of styrofoam wrapped in brown  
       crepe paper                                                                                                                 14.50 
• Glue stick                                                                                                                         6.00 
• White glue                                                                                                                         .25 


Subtotal                                                                                                                         Php 148.00
Equipment                   Cost 
• Glue gun                Php 180.00 
• Gold paint                    8.75 
• Paint brush                   69.00 
• Scissors                     35.00 
 Total Cost                Php 290.75 
* Based on current market prices


PROCEDURES 
A. Candle holder making 
1. Paint the sides and edges of the terra cotta pot. Use dry-brushing method. 
2. Using glue gun and glue sticks, attach the wooden handle at the center of the terra cotta. Let dry. 
3. Upon drying, put candle in the holder and set aside. 
4. Attach two small styrofoarm wrapped in brown crepe paper. 
5. Make two more pairs of styrofoam and let dry. 
6. Attach styrofoam inside the terra cotta and glue around the wooden handle. 
7. Attach three big pieces of styrofoam on top of the small ones. This will serve as the base of the trimming that would be attached to the candle holder. Set aside. 


B. Braided buri ribbon making 
1. Form one piece braided buri strip into a bow. 
2. Tie the center of the bow with wire using the pliers. 
3. Cut two ends of the bow in “V” shape. 
4. Repeat procedures 1-3 to make one more braided buri ribbon. 


C. Candle holder trimming 
1. Put pieces of styrofoam around the wood/bamboo to serve as the base. 
2. Attach paper twine petal and apply glue on the stem and attach on styrofoam base. 
3. Put glue and attach gold-painted pine cones around the candle. 
4. Attach braided buri ribbon on the sides of the paper twine petal. 
5. Attach the Christmas garland in different parts around the candle. 
6. Attach the four screw pines. Glue it on the center of the two ribbons and at the center of the paper twines. 
7. Arrange/align trimmings properly. 



COSTING AND PRICING 
A. Product Costing 
1. Direct Cost  Materials:   Php 148.00
   
2. Indirect Cost 
             Particulars                                                                              Cost 
 Labor Cost (P350/day min. wage)                                                   Php 19.44 
Transportation Cost     (P50.00)                                                               2.77 
Water and Electricity     (P40.00)                                                             2.22 Contingency Cost (10%  of  Direct                                                           14.80 cost)

Total Indirect Cost per piece                                                                Php 39.23                                                          
*Based on 18 pieces average daily produce.

3. Production Cost
                        Particulars                                                                        Cost
           Total Direct Cost                                                                     Php 148.00
             Add: Total Indirect Cost                                                        39.23
Total Cost per Production in
One Day
                                                                                                       Php 187.23
B. Product Pricing
Production cost per piece                                                                  Php 187.23
Add: 20% - 30% mark-up of the                                                                 37.45 
production cost
                                                                                                     
Selling Price per piece                                                                       Php 224.68    
Market price per piece                                                                   Php 250.00

The higher the volume of production per day, the lower the production cost, thus increasing the
markup to more than 30%. If price per piece is lower compared with the existing market price, increase mark-up to 30% or more. 




FINANCING FACILITY 
• SSS Special Financing Program
Social Security System (SSS)
Loans and Investment Office
SSS Building, East Avenue, Diliman,
Quezon City
Tel. Nos.: (632)920.6401 / 920.6446
Email: member_relations@sss.gov.ph
Website: www.sss.gov.ph
• Small & Medium Enterprise Credit
Phil. Business for Social Progress
18th Flr., Phil. Social Dev’t. Center,
Magallanes cor. Real St. Intramuros, Manila
Tel. Nos. (632)527.7741 to 51 or 527.3751
Fax No. (632)527.3743
Email:  pbsp@pbsp.org.ph or
smec@pbsp.org.ph
Website: www.pbsp.org.ph
• People’s Credit Finance Corporation
395 Sen. Gil Puyat Ave. Makati
Tel. Nos. (632) 897.8549 / 897.5822
Fax No. (632) 897.8523 / 897.8528
Email: info@pcfc.ph
Website: www.pcfc.gov.ph


Cottage Industry Technology  Center (CITC) 
20 Russet St., SSS Village, Marikina City
Tel. Nos.: (632) 942.0880 / 942.3974
Email: citc_dti@yahoo.com.
• Technology Resource Center (TRC) 
TLRC Building, 103 J. Abad Santos cor.
Lopez Jaena Sts., Little Baguio, San Juan,
Metro Manila
Tel. Nos.: (632) 727.6205
Website: www.tlrc.gov.ph
• Technical Education and Skills 
Development Authority For Women Center
37 East Service Rd. South Superhighway,
Taguig City
Telefax. No.: (632) 818.8062
Trunkline: (632) 814.4076 loc. 278
Email: tesdawomen@yahoo.com
Website:  http://twc.tesda.gov.ph





How to make Candle Holders at Home
 
Requirements
  • A Coffee Can/ Glass Vase
  • Tealight Candles
  • Tiny Nails
  • Beads/ Buttons
  • Small Hammer
  • Water
  • Freezer
  • Sharpie Marker
  • Spray Paint For Several Colors
Method
  • Get your hands on the marker and start sketching random geometric shapes and fancy patterns on the outer surface of the coffee can or vase. Choose whatever you like, be it stars, circles or butterflies! As long as you like it, go for it! 
  • In case you are using a glass vase, ensure that there’s enough of space to accommodate a quaint assortment of rocks or marbles to help hold the candle in place. For the coffee can, pour water into it but not right up to the rim! Since water expands when subject to freezing, you ought to leave an inch of space at least!
  • Place the coffee can into the freezer for a while.
  • At the beginning of the intricate patterns on the top of the coffee can, insert a small nail. Since the melting will begin from the top of the can, start piercing holes right there. Without much force, tap the hammer on the nail till it reaches the interiors of the can. Along the lines of the different patterns, keep piercing tiny holes until you’ve worked your way through the entire surface area of the can.
  • Allow the ice to melt as you place the can under the warm tap water. Spray paint with the color of your choice after the can dries.
  • Use colorful beads and sequins for further adornment on the vase or can, whichever you prefer. Stick the beads with glue and beading thread.
Lantern Candle Holder
  • To make a lantern candle holder, you will need more or less the same material used in the above mentioned candle holder. The only added material would be a thin gauge copper wire.
  • Your first step would entail making two holes on opposite sides of the can’s upper surface. Insert the copper wire through the holes and hang from a tree or garden porch. This is guaranteed to look stunning!
  • Just like in the previous type of tin candle holder, draw pretty shapes or flora patterns for beautification.

Start a Car Floor Mat Manufacturing Business

 
(352). Start a Car Floor Mat Manufacturing Business
By now all of must be aware of the fundamental function of car mats. It helps to keep the interiors of your car sparkling clean. With the passage of time people have started experimenting with the choice of car mats. There are many who opt for stylish car mats to enhance the look and feel of their car.In fact, stylish car mats have witnessed an increasing demand in the recent times. Not only they are available in a wide range of designs and shades, but also strive to enhance the overall appearance of your vehicle. While some of the car mats cost a pinch on your pocket, most of them are reasonably priced. Car owners who are very much fussy about the look of their precious possession even opt for customized mats. What makes the stylish car mats so appealing is their attractive designs and clean feel.

It is always safer to opt for darker colors as the stains are hardly visible on them. Moreover, while washing the dark colored car mats you do not have to scrub them with all your might unlike the light-colored car mats. Another point that you must keep in mind while choosing car mats is that the material must be sturdy. It is wise to opt for heavyweight composition rubber or nylon yarn with a super high density.While shopping for car floor mats, you can either opt for ready-made ones or tailor-make it. Whatever be your choice, make sure it aptly suits your needs.

Car is one of the biggest investment that people make in their life after house. Thus, people left no stone unturned to ensure that their car looks good for years to come. Not only the outside of car, today majority of the car owners pay attention to car interior to ensure it matches with the outside look of the car. Car mats are the first choice for many owners when it comes to enhance the interior decoration of the car. Other than decorative purposes car mats serve wide variety of purposes like protecting the car floor from regular wear and tear. Car mats come in wide variety and possess excellent features like perfect durability and quality. These mats are also weather resistant thereby making it perfect choice for all year round usage. With so many different models of cars are available today car mats manufacturers ensure that they are competent enough to meet with the growing demand and thus offers customized car mats.
Car mats are made from different types of materials and each material serves in varied weather conditions. There are rubber car mats, carpet car floor mats, transparent or clear car mats and customized car mats. Among all these types of mats, it is advisable to go for customized car mats that ensure owners get the right fit irrespective of the make or model. While many car owners look for interesting tips to enhance the interior of their cars here are some:

 
Colourful Characters: Unlike regular car mats you can go for printed mats with colourful cartoon characters. In recent times, these kinds of mats are gaining popularity especially if owners have children. These kinds of mats amuses children while enhancing the look of the car.
Personal Touch: If you are woman, you can give your car interior a feminine touch. As cars are always considered a masculine machine, female can always give a personal touch. Thus, from pink car mats to simple but innovative patterns you can always give onlookers the message this is a girl’s car and thus it is unique just like you. Polka dot, stripes are some of the popular girl choice when it comes to decorating the interior of your car. 


Sports team or rock star: As music and sports entertain mass and they have die hard fan following music or sports icons picture car mats are perfect choice for them. Today, many manufacturers offer car mats of your favourite musical and sports personality. In fact, this kind of car mats make very good gift items.
Customized car mats: This kind of mat will cost you bit extra, but surely you can get according to your expectations. You can customize them with your name initials or your favourite pattern and picture. These car mats not only make great impression but also suits with the outside look of your car. You can also get car mats reflecting your hobbies or careers. 


Car mats are available in clear vinyl, heavy-duty rubber and 3 types of nylon carpet finishes. All of our car mats offer excellent wear characteristics and durability. Specially dyed carpet colors match or complement all OEM interiors. Heavy-duty backing insulates against heat and noise and helps to keep these car floor mats in place.
Carpet Car Mats

Carpet Car Mats

• Largest selection of carpet-surface car mats.

• From 18oz, 1/4" thick up to 48oz, 1/2" thick premium nylon yarn.

• Water-resistant, latex coated surface with a non-slip backing.
Rubbertite Car Mats

Rubbertite Car Mats

• Commercial-grade rubber construction remains flexible.

• Hundreds of "wells" hold water, snow, dirt and debris.

• Rubber grippers hold this mat firmly in place.

• Simply shake out or hose off for cleaning.
TruBerber Car Mats

TruBerber Car Mats

• Strength of polypropylene with the crush resistance of nylon.

• Multi-tone colors help hide dirt and debris.

• 48oz construction for a longer life.
Protector Car Mats

Protector Car Mats

• Heavy-duty, clear vinyl construction.

• Grippers on backside keep these mats in place.

• Simply shake out or hose off to clean.


This is how the process of making mats works:

  1. An order to produce mats is received from a car maker.
  2. A company employee goes out to the car showroom, where he scans the car interior.
    Scanning the interior of an automobile is not easy, since the space in a salon is rather tight and dark. Therefore, to obtain an acceptable result, about 6 scans are done from various angles. Scan time is 15 minutes. The ease of capturing depends on the upholstery material. Bright interiors scan more quickly and easily, while digitizing dark, especially black, nappy surfaces takes longer.
  3. To obtain a high quality model of a trunk interior about 20 scans are done. Scanning takes about 30 minutes.
  4. Data is processed in Artec Studio, and models are exported in a commonly used format and used as a template for sketches in other software.
  5. After that a CNC turns out a semi-finished matrix out of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF).
  6. Then the semi-finished material is further processed until it is ready.
  7. The next stage is forming. A polymer sheet is vacuum-formed by a special device to create the finished product.
  8. The final stage is “cosmetic” detailing – trimming (removing burr) and packaging, after which the product is sent to the customer.
"The technological process based on 3D scanning of a car salon is much easier and faster,” says the chief technologist of Nika Holding. Traditionally one has to take all the measurements with a tape measure, and for reliability you would have to repeat each measurement many times. 3D scanning makes it possible to automate all measurements and immediately obtain an accurate computer model that is ready to be sent to the machine which produces the form.”



Car Floor mat Making Machine


Car Floor mat Making MachineCar Floor mat Making Machine

Natural rubber, synthetic rubber oil proof, heatproof plastic, and reclaim rubber all can be ejected and shaped with any materials added. Easy to operate, is able to keep using for 24 hours.
Automobile, electric components, diving items, machine packing, shoemaking material and sports goods, etc.
The machine has a diamond type declining check valve for passing material smoothly and for preventing rubber material from coming back.
In ejecting system, there are oil heating tempature controller, screw, feeding tube and materials storage barrel for heating and cooling, these allow rubber molding, temperature adjusting and prevent dead material.
With stepless hydraulic motor in low revolution, high horsepower to drive screw for material feeding, the unique screw can do conveyance for any rubber material.
The micro ejection controller makes your product in best quality since its automatically opening mold and feeding.
Automatically exhaust, degasification allow product not to be ox dated and wiring.
The general hot compression rubber can be used for injection molding. No edge trimming is required, and the adding curetting time can be greatly shortened to 1/2 - 2/3 extent.

Car Mat Machine Manufacturers
Long Chang Mechanical lndustrial Co., Ltd. 
ADD:No.9, Lane 220, Chung Cheng South Rd., Yung Kang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan (R.O.C.)   
TEL : +886-6-2531251-2             +886-6-2533592 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting            +886-6-2533592      end_of_the_skype_highlighting         FAX : +886-6-2535271   E-mail : taiwanlongchang@gmail.com 
CHINA OFFICE : Haijing Rd., Hailouyu Vil., Liyang Town, Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province, China TEL :             +86-574 65530797 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting            +86-574 65530797      end_of_the_skype_highlighting      ~ 9   FAX : +86-574 65530796


Friday, 27 July 2012

Start a Edible Oyster Culture Business



         
(351). Start a Edible Oyster Culture Business

Marine animals belonging to the families Ostreidae are called oysters in common usage. Oyster is one of the best known and most widely cultivated marine animals. The oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy in USA, Europe, Japan etc. In India there is a growing demand for oyster meat in some parts of the country. .
Until recently, oyster farming has been considered as a traditional practice followed only in the temperate countries. The awareness about the vast potentialities for development of oyster farming in tropics is recent. Serious efforts are now being directed in its development under tropical conditions

2. Scope for oyster farming in India

In India pioneering attempts were made by James Hornell in 1910 in developing Oyster Culture in erstwhile Madras state. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute undertook scientific investigations at Tuticorin from early 70's and as a result, complete package of the technology is now available in the country. Vast stretches of backwaters, estuaries and bays present along Indian coast harbour  natural population of the oyster suggesting suitability of the habitat for oyster culture. Being filter feeders, the oyster converts primary production in the water into nutritious sea food. The site selection criteria is indicated in the annexure - I.

3. Candidate species
Six species of oysters namely the Indian backwater oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, Chinese oyster, C.rivularis, West coast oyster, C.gryphoides, Indian rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata, Bombay Oyster, Saxostrea cucullata, and giant oyster Hyostissa hyotis are found in India. The first four species mentioned above are of commercial value.
Of the six species of oysters, the Indian backwater oyster C. madrasensis is the dominant species, more widely distributed, is euryhaline and inhabits backwaters, creeks, bays and lagoons and occurs in the coastal areas of the States of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andamans. C.gryphoides is also euryhaline and occurs along north Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra coast. C.rivularis is found along Gujarat and Maharashtra coast while Saccostrea cucullatais found all along the main land coast and Andamans and Lakshadweep islands. Culture of these species is possible at places where the seed is easily available.

4. Technical Parameters
The biology of C.madrasenis, technical parameters required for the culture of the species and farming methods are described in detail in Annexure-I.

5. Borrower's Profile
The Borrower should have experience in Oyster farming and should be able to manage culture, marketing and other related aspects.  Self Help Groups can also take up this activity in clusters. Interested borrowers may be trained in oyster farming.

6. Financial Outlay
Details of the financial outlay have been indicated in Annexure II. It can be seen from that the capital cost for 0.4 ha. unit has been estimated as Rs .120000/- while the operational cost for one crop works out to Rs 78000/-. The unit cost indicated is, however, illustrative and actual cost will have to be worked out based on actual field conditions while submitting the project to the Bank.

7. Margin Money and Bank Loan 
The entrepreneur is expected to meet 25% of the project cost out of his own resources and the balance of 75% will be available as bank loan.

8. Rate of refinance
NABARD provide refinance to the banks for their financing edile oyster farming activities. The rate of refinance is decided from time to time.

9. Financial viability
The following assumptions have been made for working out the financial viability of the project as per the experiments conducted at Tuticorin.

(i)
Unit area
0.4 ha.
(ii)
Culture period
6  to 10 months
(iii)
Survival rate
55%
(iv)
Expected production
70 tonnes/ ha/ year
(v)
Sale price for meat
Rs.50/- per kg
(vi)
Sale price of oyster shell
Rs.300/ - per tonne
10. Marketing
There is limited domestic demand for oyster meat as it is not conventionally eaten. However, there is great demand for oyster meat in international market and can be exported especially to South East Asian Countries. The product can be exported in frozen, canned or in smoked form. A marketing tie up with the processing plant will have to be done for marketing of the product.

11. Interest rate for ultimate borrowers
Banks are free to decide the rate of interest within the overall RBI guidelines. However, for working out the financial viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12% per annum.

12. Refinance 
Refinance to the banks is available from NABARD for such activities which are technically feasible and financially viable and the rate of refinance will be as prescribed by NABARD from time to time. 

13.Repayment period 
As can be seen from Annexure IV the borrower will be able to repay the bank loan in five years with a moratorium of one year for repayment of principal.

14. Security 
Banks may take a decision as per RBI guidelines.


Annexure - I 
BIOLOGY, TECHNICAL PARAMETERS AND FARMING PRACTICES OF Crassostrea madrasensis
(I) Biology of C.madrasensis
The edible oyster is a sedentary animal. The soft body of the animal is encased in two shell valves out of which the upper valve acts as a lid to open and close by contraction and relaxation of  the adductor muscle.
Oysters mainly feed on organic detritus and phytoplanktonic organisms like diatoms and nanoplanktons. They are also capable of absorbing dissolved organic matter in the water through the surface of gills, palps and  the mantle.
Oysters are generally dioecious but hermaphrodites are not uncommon. Young oysters of C.madrasensis, primarily function as males (60-75 per cent) and later become females. In zero age group upto 78 mm. in length, 75 per cent are males and in one year and above with 80 - 115.5 mm. length, females represent 72 per cent. The peak spawning period is reported to be during March-April and July-September.
Oysters, like other bivalve molluscs, spend the first few weeks of their lives as small, drifting larvae. When the larva is about one-third millimetre long, it attaches to a substrate (sets)undergoes a change in its internal organs, eventually reaches sexual maturity and spawns, thus completing its life cycle.

(II) Technology of oyster culture
The technology of oyster culture consists of two important phases namely (A) Oyster seed production/ Spat collection and (B) Grow- out.

(A) Oyster seed production/ spat collection
The seed requirement for culture of oyster is met either from natural spat collection or through hatchery rearing. For collection of spat from natural grounds, suitable spat collectors or cultch materials are provided at appropriate time which may be oyster shells, coconut shells, asbestos sheets, mussel shells or other materials. These are arranged on Nylon rope or G.I. wire as strings and suspended from racks in the water at suitable spots. The larval period of C.madrasensis is 15 to 20 days and as such exposure of collectors will be ideal just after a week or 10 days of spawning activity.
A reliable source offering sufficient quantities of spat of the desired species is critical to successful oyster culture. Natural collection is the most important source of spat and will continue to be so until commercial hatcheries are established.Mass production of oyster seed is also possible in hatchery system for which technology is available, though no commercial hatcheries are available yet.

For efficient spat collection the farmer should  know the (a) spat setting season and (b) the sites  to collect sufficient spat for stocking in the  grow-out ponds.

(B) Grow out
Site Selection
For selecting suitable site for farming, several factors like water depth, bottom characteristics, protection from wave action, tidal flow and height, turbidity, water quality including chemical parameters, predation, fouling, pollution and accessibility  are considered. Selected areas should be sheltered from strong wave action, salinity should be from 22 to 35 ppt and temperature range should be from 21 to 31 degree Celsius.

Farming methods
Farming methods are normally grouped as (a) bottom culture and (b) off bottom culture. Raft, rack, long-line and stakes are used in various off-bottom culture practices. The bottom culture method is yet to be experimented in India. The off bottom culture methods are advantageous over the bottom culture due to the following reasons :

(i) The growth and meat yield is relatively better.
(ii) It facilitates three dimensional utilization of the culture area.
(iii) Biological functions like filtration, feeding etc. become independent of tidal flow.
(iv) Silting and predatory problems are minimum.
Various off bottom culture methods are as follows.

a. Rack and string (ren) method 
It is also called ren method. This is the most common method advocated for Indian conditions for which the oyster shell ren is used as spat collector. This method is ideal for shallow estuaries, bays and backwaters. The racks are constructed at 1 to 1.25 m depth. Rack is a fixed structure, comprising several wooden poles vertically driven into the substratum over which a wooden frame is made at a height of 0.5 m, above the water level. The shell strings are suspended from these racks. A rack covering 80 sq.m. area holds 90 strings and 125 racks in a ha. At the end of 7-10 months, each string may weigh 7 to 7.5 kg. and the production of oyster is estimated at 80 tonne / ha. The mortality is about 45 per cent. The meat yield is about 10%.

b. Rack and tray method 
The nursery reared single spat (cultch-free) measuring about 25 mm are transferred to trays of size 40 x 40 x 10 cm at a density of 150 to 200 spat / tray. The tray is knitted with 2 mm synthetic twine of appropriate mesh size  and is suspended from the rack. Once the oyster reaches 50 mm length they are segregated and transferred to rectangular tray of size 90 x 60 x 15 cm and these trays are placed on the rack which occupies 25 sq.m area and holds 150-200 oysters. The average growth rate of oyster is 7 mm/ month and at the end of 12 months, the oyster attains an average length of 85 mm. The production estimated is 120 tonne/ ha/ year which when compared to string method is higher,however the production cost is quite high.

c. Stake culture 
In this culture method,  stakes  with one nail on the top end and two nails on the sides are driven into the substratum . These nails  hold the shells with spat. The stakes are placed 60 cm. apart. In this method, the nursery rearing of spat is carried on the same stake. Initially for 2 months, the spat is covered with velon screen till a size of 25-30 mm. is attained and in another 10 months they reach marketable size. The production is estimated to be 20tonnes/ ha/ year.

 d. Raft culture 
Raft is the most suitable farm structure in sheltered bays where the depth is 5m and  more. Wooden poles placed parallelly and tied across with coir rope to make a rigid frame. Four empty airtight barrels of about 200 litre capacity are tied to the underside of the raft at corners. It is moored by two anchors and a chain. The size of the raft varies however rafts of size 6m x 5 m. are found to be quite suitable. PVC pipes instead of wooden poles and styrofoam floats in place of barrels may be used. However, this method has not been tried in India so far.

e. Long line culture 
In this system long ropes or cables are anchored at each end and are supported at intervals by floats. Long lines of 50-100 m length are easy to manage. Double long lines comprising of one line on either side of the floats are also used.

Farm management and Harvesting 
Farm management practices involve periodic cleaning of the oyster, oyster rearing trays, farm structure like racks, thinning, sorting or grading and manual removal of predators and foulers. ‘Fouling’ includes mud, ascidians, coral, sponges and other encrusting organisms. These agents attach themselves to trays and oysters and interfere with the feeding and respiration of the oysters. If not attended to on time, a thick blanket of fouling organisms and silt develops and the growth of oysters is hampered. Mortality also increases due to the restriction  of water circulation over the animals. 
Oysters are harvested when the condition of the meat reaches high value which in case of C.madrasensis is found to be good during March-April and August-September. Harvesting is done manually and oysters are transported to shore in dinghies.  After landing, the harvested oysters should be brushed and any fouling organisms removed. Oysters should be depurated to ensure they are free of bacterial contamination. Depuration should be carried out for 36 hours. Undepurated oysters are unsafe for consumption and may cause gastroenteritis and related diseases. Reservoir water in the depuration unit should be replaced for each run. Oysters are marketed after depuration.  Some oysters may be sold as shucked meat. A special ‘shucking’ knife should be used to open the oysters and remove the meat. Care must be taken not to damage the oyster meat during shucking. The meat should be weighed and then kept on ice until sale.

Training and Extension
The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), ICAR provides technology, training and extension services to the interested farmers to take up  culture.


ANNEXURE--II 
ESTIMATED FINANCIAL OUTLAY AND PRODUCTION
FOR CULTURE OF C.madrasensis

By rack and string method in 0.4 ha. unit area (illustrative)


 Unit
 Rs
A
 Capital Cost


1
Construction of pond for nursery( incase of nursery only)

20000
2
 FRP dinghy
 1 No
35000
3
 Outboard motor (8 HP)
 1 No.
30000
4
 Pump set (3.5 HP)
 1 N0.
10000
5
 Farm accessories

25000

TOTAL  Capital cost

 120000
B
 Operational Cost


1
 Cost of seed

6000
2
 Cost of stakes
 50 No.
25000
3
 Nylon rope

10000
4
 Other farm materials, repairs etc.

5000
5
 Labour

25000
6
 Harvesting Charges

7000

TOTAL  Operational cost

 78000

Total Project Cost

 198000
C
 Production


1
 Total harvest of meat
3 tonnes
2
 Oyster shell
25 tonnes
3
 Income from sale of meat
 Rs 50/kg
 150000
4
 Income from sale of Oyster shells
 Rs 0.30 per Kg
 7500


 TOTAL
 157500



Annexure III 
Financial Analysis (Amt. in Rs.)

Particulars/            Year
1
2
3
4
5
Capital cost
 120000




Recurring cost
 78000
 78000
 78000
 78000
 78000
Total cost
 198000
 78000
 78000
 78000
 78000
Income
 157500
 157500
 157500
 157500
 157500
Net Benefits
 -40500
 79500
 79500
 79500
 79500
PW of costs @ 15% DF
 365816




PW of benefits @ 15% DF
 527964




NPW
 162149




BCR
                                         1.44:1
IRR
                                        > 50%                                                   
Annexure - IV 
ESTIMATED BANK LOAN AND REPAYMENT PERIOD (ILLUSTRATIVE) 
Total Project Cost                198000
Margin (25%)                        49500
Bank Loan                             148500 
                                                                                                                        (Amt. in Rs.)

Year /Particulars
 Bank Loan
 Net Income
 Repayment
 Net surplus



 Interest  @ 12% pa
 Principal
 Total








1
 148500
 79500
 17820
0
 17820
 61680
2
 148500
 79500
 17820
37200
 55020
 24480
3
 111300
 79500
 13356
37200
 50556
 28944
4
 74100
 79500
 8892
37200
 46092
 33408
5
 36900
 79500
 4428
 36900
 41328
 38172