Friday, 28 December 2012

Start a Food Waste into Organic Fertilizer


Start a  Food Waste into Organic Fertilizer

With the trend toward environmentally friendly, organic and recycled products, people have started to look into natural ways to garden. All of these trends can be utilized with composting, a method of turning organic waste into fertilizer for gardens. With a few simple steps and new habits, you can make use of composting to lower your environmental impact and cut costs

Converting Food Waste into Fertilizer 
Food waste is any unused, left over and any consumable food items being discarded and is usually being handled by waste department and/or privately contracted waste management companies and is being hauled away and dumped into landfills. The sources of food waste mainly comes from leftover of our meals, waste ingredients during preparation of cuisine and the rejected products from food manufacturing and processing industries. In the United States the food waste contributes 35% by weight of the daily municipal solid wastes which are collected from domestic residential, commercial and industrial premises.
Reports indicate that only 5% of the food waste is being recycled and is mainly being turn into fertilizer and renewable energy and the rest sits in landfills and is turning into a problematic issue in health and environment. According to study as high as 50 percent of the food gets thrown into the garbage and that represents $30 billion of wasted food. Plus it cost Americans $1 billion dollars annually just to haul away food waste.
Problems with Food Waste ?
Besides the problem of high cost of handling food waste, rotten food can produce harmfulmethane gas and if not handled properly can create health problem and cost of life. Also food waste contains high organic and moisture contents, when dumped into landfills and decompose produces offensive smell which seriously affect our living environment. 
In addition, as the country and the world are becoming more environmentally conscious it is not acceptable to just dump garbage into landfills which is running out of space to handle them and no city and citizens want new landfills to be in their neighborhood. With this in mind how is the country and the world going to handle this problematic issue. 
Existing Effort of Handling Food                                                  

Mos of the developed countries have tried putting considerable efforts on food waste recycling anrecovery because of recognized problems of health issues and simply running out of landfills. The best idea has been and still is turning food waste into compost. However the efforts are without much success for reasons of priority and technology.
Now that many cities in America such as San Francisco, Portland just to name a few, are revitalizing the food waste recycling effort and even enacted new regulations to mandate food waste recycling. This is putting the food waste issue to the forefront and the business of recycling food waste is worth the attention.

Principle of Existing Technology

Existing technology involves the application of heat and oxygen for aerobic reaction so that themicroorganisms in aerobic digester can decompose the organic substances. However, this technology have many disadvantages like high operating cost due to high electricity consumption, requiring pre-sorting of food waste, highly dependence on microorganisms, novice deodorization unit and can not handle large volume of food waste. 
Food waste is decomposed inside the insulated digestive bio-reactor under suitable high temperature and aerobic condition resulting in having a system with full proof of non-toxic by-products being produced and the quality of the fertilizing product and the rate of waste reduction can be guaranteed. 
  1. The integrated system which utilizes special designed condenser and bio-filter is tightly sealed to ensure no offensive smell comes out as food waste is being processed and creating an environmentally friendly working condition.
  2. The system does not require the use of electric mixer and heater which consume a lot of energy. Instead it only uses a warm air blower to supply oxygen. So the power consumption is around 8 times less than other composting units, thus the operation cost can be reduced significantly.
  3. The equipment in the system can be either operated manually or automatically by a computerized control system.
  4. The system can be tailored to specific needs from compact in size and highly mobile for small to medium size food service enterprises to large scale processing units such as large institutions and/or municipalities.
  5. The system can achieve a higher degree of reduction in total volume of food waste, producing non-toxic by-products such as fertilizer, renewable energy products that can benefit food production and other industrial applications while employing little resource or recyclable material while having a safe and environmentally friendly system design with a goal of achieving 75% conversion efficiency.
  6. This system can dramatically reduce the cost of handling food waste and can benefit the masses and government in economic and health terms.
                   
System Characteristics
  • It prevents the emission of toxins
  • It uses an aerobic fermentation involving microbes and does not generate toxins by burning waste
  • Destroys Escherichia coil 0-157
  • Fermentation heat reaches 70  to 80  degrees. It destroys germs that have harmful effects on people
  • Solves the issue of odor for neighborhoods
  • It collects odor through one duct and deodorizes in the tank. Preventive measures for deodorizing are in place
  • A single tank can process large quantities of food waste
  • Special designed units are capable of treating large quantity of food waste for municipal application
  • Producing high-quality organic compost
  • Efficient utilization of space
  • System is durable and thermal insulated
  • Triple layer tank structure (inner wall: stainless steel, middle wall: heat insulating material, outer wall: steel)

How to Compost Food Waste

How to Compost Organic Waste thumbnail

Instructions


    • 1

      Turning compost bin.

      Decide what type of compost bin you want. You can buy various types of compost bins from home and garden supply companies or build your own from wood planks or wire enclosures. Prices for compost bins on the market range from $90-400.
    • 2

      Composting requires plenty of sunlight.

      Place your compost bin where it will get plenty of sunlight throughout the day as heat is essential for the decomp. process.
    • 3

      Add kitchen and lawn waste.

      Start adding your kitchen and yard waste to your compost bin. Kitchen waste includes vegetables, fruits, breads, coffee grounds and filters, tea leaves, paper towels, newspapers, etc. Yard waste includes grass clippings, leaves, saw dust, pulled weeds, etc.
    • 4

      Add water.

      Add water to your compost bin. Compost should always be moist but not soaking wet. If you are using water from your tap let it set for 24 hours to get rid of chlorine and other chemicals that will kill beneficial microbes in your compost.
    • 5

      Turn your compost.

      Use a pitch fork or other long-handled garden tool to turn compost at least once per month. If you have a tumbling compost bin you should turn once a week or so to speed up process of decomposition.
    • 6

      Compost ready for use.

      When compost is ready for use it will be a dark, rich-looking soil with a clean, earthy smell. Composting can take anytime from 2 weeks to 6 months depending on the type of compost bin you have. There are electric compost bins that compost in as little as 11 days.
    • 7

      Using compost.

      Add compost to soil as an amendment, top-dressing for plants or as a turf builder.

Step 1

Set up a location to place the organic waste. Select an area near the house and garden so that you are not traveling far with organic material. Keep the composter upwind of you, if you are worried about fumes or odor.

Step 2

Create a container for the organic waste. This can be a 50-gallon oil drum with aeration holes punched into the sides at various points. Make sure the container can hold a good amount of waste as the composting will take up room in the beginning stages; also be sure that the drum has a top that can be secured tightly and has a hole that can be plugged. Paint the oil drum a dark color to help the sun heat the material inside.

Step 3

Collect food waste to turn into fertilizer. Spoiled fruit, vegetable and fruit peelings, coffee grounds, peanut shells, and leftovers from dinner can all be used. Avoid oils, grease, dairy and meat products.

Step 4

Add wood, garden, and landscape waste. Use wood ashes from the fireplace, dried leaves, grass clippings, twigs, dead flowers or other clippings. As an aid to chopping up materials, you might prune your plants before mowing and then put all the dried leaves on the lawn. Use the bagging attachment of the mower when you mow, and this will chop up the clippings and grass and bag them for easy disposal into the composter.

Step 5

Add shredded newspaper. Use a paper shredder or tear the paper by hand. Toss in shredded junk mail or other papers you want to dispose of. Make sure all personal information is removed, blacked out, or shredded thoroughly.

Step 6

Add sawdust from workshop projects as long as they don't contain painted or treated wood. These naturally decompose within the composter and will help heat up the material for faster turnover into fertilizer.

Step 7

Gather manure from chickens, horses, cows, goats and other grain-eating farm animals. If you don't have animals, ask local farmers if you can the pick up waste material from their animals. Add this to the composter.

Step 8

Mix the organic material daily. Tip the barrel over on its side so it rolls. Roll the barrel until it has made a full rotation at least twice. Set the barrel back up in its original location.

Step 9

Obtain the fertilizer. Put a cinder block on the ground. Tip over the barrel so the top of the side rests on the block. Keep the plugged hole close to the ground. Set a bucket against the cinder block under the hole. Unplug the hole. Pick up the barrel from the opposite end. Pour out the liquid into the bucket. This is your "compost tea" or liquid fertilizer. Set the barrel down. Plug the hole. Tip the barrel back upright again. Use the material inside the barrel as mulch to mix into the soil.




Start a Liquid Detergent Manufacturing Business



  

Start a Liquid Detergent Manufacturing Business
Liquid detergent is a type of detergent i.e. cleaning agent. Its popular use is to
wash woolen cloth but it is also used for washing of utensils specially glass and crockery,
and for automobile wash.  Now a days it is widely used in washing machines, laboratories
etc.

MARKET :
There are few brands are available in the market which is for woolen cloth
washing. But few MSME units are also having good marketing their products. Considering
the fact that it does not contain any filler material which deposited on the cloth surface,  its
popularity is increasing in  conscious people. There is good potential of this product of good
quality and economical prices.


BASIS & PRESUMPTIONS :
1. The basis of calculation of production capacity is on single shift basis and
working of 25 days per month.
2. Rate of interest has been taken @  18% per annum on an  average on working
capital and total capital investment.
3. Whereas some names of manufacturers  and suppliers of raw materials,
machinery & equipments are at the end of the profile are by no means exclusive
or exhaustive.
4. The cost of machinery & equipments indicated in the profile are approximate
those prevailing at the time of preparation of the profile.
5. Non-refundable deposits of  preparation of project report may be considered
under pre-operative expenses.
6. The provision made in raw materials, utilities, overhead etc. is drawn on the
basis of local market  conditions/ observations and in approximate. The
entrepreneur may find out the exact cost from the concerned sources.
7. License is required under Drug & Cosmetic Act from state drug controller.


IMPLIMENTATION SCHEDULE
         1.   Registration of the unit with DIC    10 days
           2.   Procurement of finance through Bank or    45 days
        other financial institutions.
           3.   Procurement of machines     30 days
           4.   Commercialization of the unit/ Trial production.   10 days


Process of manufacture :
      It is a neutralization process of Acid slurry by Caustic Soda keeping pH 7 to 9. Acid
slurry and water is mixed slowly in the mixer, after that it is neutralized by the aq. Solution of
caustic soda to get the required pH. AOS is used as foam booster while urea is a buffering agent
and also create transparency. Lastly colour and perfume is added.
                Quality Specification :
     It may be manufactured as per customer’s specification
 Production Capacity :
          Capacity                  75% Capacity  
            Installed                Utilization(I Yr.)
       a)  Quantity                  1,35,000 Kg                           1,01,250 Kg                    
     
      b)  Value (in Rs.)          82,83,000                                 62,12,250


. Power Requirement :
  Connected Load   : 5 KWH

 Pollution Control  :
 Though there is no discharge of effluent during manufacturing of Liquid detergent but care
should be taken to avoid the chemicals in washings.

 Energy Conservation  :
 The adequate measures for energy conservation and illumination will reduce the wastage of
energy




FINANCIAL  ASPECTS  : 
  I. Fixed Capital  :

1. Land & Building :                                                      (value in Rs.)
Land  200 sq. meter @ 200/- sq.m.                                   40,000
Covered  Area – 150 sq.m. @ 2200/- sq.m.                   3,30,000
                                                                              Rs.     3,70,000   
2.  Machinery & Equipments :
a) Production unit    
 
Details                                              Qty/No.                          Price (in Rs.)
       
  1. S.S. Vessel with                                   1                                    50,000
      stirrer, low speed
     Cap. 200 kg
  2. Bottle  filling machine                          1                                     35,000
      .Semi automatic
 3.  Storage Tanks , SS,                              2                                     30,000
      Cap. 200 Liters  
 4.  Tools & Misc. equipments                  LS                                      5,000
  8.  Testing & laboratory equipments        LS                                    20,000
  7.  Installation & Electrification                -                                       13,500
      charges @ 10% of machinery
  8. Office furniture, equipment &             LS                                    20,000
             fixtures.                                                                                  __________
                                                                                      Rs.             1,73,500 

  3.   Pre-operative Expenses                                                              10,000                  

Total Fixed Capital  :
       Rs. 3,70,000    + 1,73,500  + 10,000                                           5,53,500
       
 II. Working Capital  :
         1.   Personnel :
         Designation                     No.               Salary (PM)                Total (in Rs.)
1. Manager/ Chemist         1                    8000/ -                            8,000
 2. Skilled Worker              1                     5000/ -                              5,000
 3. Semiskilled Worker       2                    3000/-                                6,000
 4. Sales man                       2                    3500/-                                7,000
         26,000
 Perquisites @ 15% of salaries                                                             3,900
                                                                                                          29,900 

2.Raw Material : (PM)
 
 Particulars                                      Qty/kg             Rate(Rs)                 Value(Rs.)
1. Acid Slurry –                               80%                 2115  85            1,79,775
2. Caustic Soda                              220                         30                 6,600
3. AOS                                          175                           46               8,050
4. Urea                                         1270                           20             25,400
5. Colour                                       35                         400                 14,000
6. Perfume                                    8                           600                    4,800
7. Plastic bottles & Canes
500  ml cap.                               8100 No.                   8                             64,800
5 litre cap 890 No.                           25                   22,250
8. Corrugated boxes                     LS                             -                        10,000
                                                                                                             3,35,675 


  3. Utilities (PM)  :
Power and Electricity          1000 KWH @ 6/-           6,000
Water                                                                         1,000
                                                                                 7,000 
               
4. Other Contingent Expenses (PM)  :
 
 1.Postage & Telephone             2,000
 2.Consumable Store                  2,000
 3.Repair & Maintenance                  2,000
 4.Transport charges                  7,000
 5.Advertisement & Publicity               17,000
 6.Insurance                                    1000
 7.Sales Expenses                  7,000
 8.Misc.Expenditure                  2,000
                                              40,000 
  5. Total Recurring Expenditure (P.M.) :
1. Personnel                                            29,900
2. Raw material                                      3,35,675
3. Utilities                                               7,000
4. Other contingent expenses                  40,000
                                          4,12,575 
 6. Total Working Capital ( For 3 months)  :
 
 Rs. 4,12,575 X 3                                     12,37,725
   
  7. Total Capital Investment  :
1. Fixed Capital                                                              5,53,500
2.   Working Capital (3 months)                                     12,37,725
                                                                                     17,91,225
                     Say                                                           17,91,000
    8. Financial Analysis :
A. Cost of Production (Per Annum) :
1.   Total recurring cost                                     49,50,900
2. Depreciation on building @ 5% per annum    16,500
3. Depreciation on machinery & equipment @ 10%     14,850
per annum
4.   Depreciation on furniture & fixtures @ 20%      5,000
      per annum
  5.   Interest on total capital investment @ 18%                 3,22,380
     per annum        __________
                                   53,09,630
               Say                  53,10,000
                             
B. Turnover (Per Annum)  :    
Item            Qty.(No)       Rate(Rs.)  Value(in Rs.)
Liquid Detergent        
1. 500 ml   96,000                        32.00   30,72,000
2. 5 Litre   10,644       295.00   31,39,980
                                                                                            62,11,980   C.  Net Profit(Per Annum) :
      (Before Income-Tax)
       Rs. 62,11,980 – 53,10,000               9,01,980
               Say                9,02,000
 
 D.  Net Profit Ratio  :          14.50 %
 E.  Rate of Return    :          50.00 %
 F.  B.E.P.                   :          43.00 %

 Address of machinery manufacturers & suppliers :
1. M/s Singhasini Engg. Works, B- 4/25 , Factory Area, Fazalganj, Kanpur.
2. M/s Golden Engg., A-13, Vishal Enclave, Najafgarh Road, New Delhi.
3. M/s K.S.Krishna & Assocaiates, 15, Community Centre, East of Kailash,                      
New  Delhi
4. M/s Corporated Engg., 7, Chitranjan Avenue, Kolkata

Address of raw material suppliers  : 
  Available with local dealers.            
12.Resource Centre of Technology :
 
 Hercourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur.
 Technical Consultants.