Tuesday, 19 March 2013

Start a Ultramarine Blue Making Business


Start a Ultramarine Blue Making Business
Ultramarine blue is a blue pigment consisting primarily of a double silicate of aluminium and sodium with some sulfides or sulfites. The blue color of the pigment is due to the S3- radical anion, which contains an unpaired electron. It is produced by heating kaolin, sodium carbonate, sulphur and other inexpensive ingredients together. It is heat and alkali resistant.
Ultramarine Blue is a very safe, environmental friendly & non-hazardous blue pigment with multiple uses worldwide. Its synthetic manufacturing process and control over its physical, chemical, and color characteristics enables it in producing many other types of blue pigment, which are readily accepted by plastic,printing ink, paint, cement, soaps & detergents, paper and many other industries. It has excellent light-fastness and possesses an excellent heat stability up to 350°C, due to these advantages it is preferred over other organic pigments and dyes.

Main Parameters of Technology/Process/Product:
Main Feature:
  • Strong blue pigment
  • Non-toxic
  • Resistant to high temperature
  • Resistant to alkalis
Input (Raw materials with specifications):
  • Commercial grade2
  • China Clay
  • Sulphur
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Charcoal
Marketing Aspects:
Total industry and annual growth:Nil
Current demand: 35 ton/ year
Local production facilities: Nil
Imports: Rs. 20.00 Million per year 

Major users:
  • Soap/detergent industry
  • Textile/fiber industry
  • Paper industry
  • Plastic industry
  • Packaging industry
Marketing strategy
  • Supply of samples to SMEDA for marketing
  • Distribution of brochures among stakeholders
  • Display of the samples at various chambers of commerce and industry
  • Publicity through electronic and print media
    • Holding of seminars and exhibitions

Details of Cost:
Description Cost (Rs) 
1. Direct Production Cost 388/kg
2. Raw materials cost per unit 100.00/kg
3. Direct wages cost per unit 45.00/kg
4. Production overheads cost per unit 2.00/kg
4. Admin and selling expenses per month 20,000.00
4. Salaries and benefits per month 200,000.00
5. Utilities charges per month 250,000.00
6. Communication expenses 5,000.00
7. Publicity and advertisement expenses per month 10,000.00

 For details  visit http://www.pcsir.gov.pk/PCSIR%20Feasibility%20Studies%20for%20BOI/PLC/Ultramarine%20Blue%20Pigment.pdf

Ultramarine Blue is widely used in various industries.
Due to its multifarious advantages and manifold usages, Ultramarine Pigment is used in diverse industries to function in many applications, such as:

InksInks :
  • Ultramarine Blue is a suitable pigment for use in inks due to its inorganic nature. It shows good wettability in water systems and good resistance to organic solvents. Due to its many characteristics properties such as good light resistance and low oil absorption it is used in different types of inks e.g. Flexographic.

PaintsPaints :
  • Ultramarine Blue is widely used in a variety of paints for Oil Paints, Water and Acrylic Paints, Water-based Emulsion Paints etc. It provides a bluish undertone, while providing uniformity in the composition. Ultramarine Blue pigment displays high fastness to alkalis, air, light, water, detergents and organic solvents.

MasterbatchMasterbatch :
  • Ultramarine blue has non-shrinking, non-warping properties, along with its exceptional heat and light stability, it has led to the development of a range of high quality pigments specifically for masterbatch applications. This pigment is widely used in applications that require improved appearance in brightness, transparency, and surface smoothness. The color masterbatch also provides improved mechanical properties preferred for manufacturing of thin films, pressure pipes, fibres, bottles, etc.

Surface CoatingSurface Coating :
  • Ultramarine Blue pigment is used in surface coating. It occupies a unique position in the blue color space that can not be achieved by any other pigment or blend of pigments. Its reddish undertone is highly appreciated in both mass tone and tint applications in surface coating. This makes the pigment clearly differentiated from any Blue Phthalocyanine and any Cobalt Blue, even if they are in combination with organic violet pigments.

PapersPaper :
  • Ultramarine Blue is extensively used for the whitening of cellulose pulp and the coloration of the outside coating on colored and stucco papers. It is used as blue pigment or as filler shade correctors because in paper coating treatment, high dose levels of pigments and white fillers are used. A blend of Ultramarine Blue and a optical whitener is used to achieve optical whitening especially under a light which is rich in ultraviolet rays. It can be easily eliminated with waste water & has no contaminant risks. Moreover, it is environmental friendly, which is an added advantage in the Paper industry.
Plastic & RubberPlastic & Rubber :
  • Ultramarine Pigments has non-shrinking, non-warping properties, due to these it maintain the dimensional stability of polyolefins and other polymers. It is compatible and suitable for all kind of polymers, such as polyolefins, rubber polymers and more. It is not only used to provide the reddish blue shade or to whiten polymers, but also to provide a blue undertone to gray and black plastic parts.

Soaps, Detergents, Toiletries & CosmeticsSoaps, Detergents, Toiletries & Cosmetics
  • Ultramarine Pigment is used in various types of toiletries formulations such as: shampoos, soaps, gels, etc. It has a unique reddish blue shade and possess high tinting strength, which makes the product non staining in final use. In cosmetics, it is valued for its brightness and non-irritability characteristic and also has very low levels of any impurity. Few examples of fields of application are eye shadows, face powders and artistic make-ups.

Cement and Construction IndustryCement and Construction Industry :
  • The coloration of cement or any formulation is based on nature of cement such as mortars, concrete, tiles joints. With Ultramarine Pigments the coloration is possible only under controlled conditions of formulation and use. Ultramarine Blue is widely used in house roof coatings preparations that is colored with blue.

Artist's Colors IndustryArtist's Colors Industry
  • Ultramarine blue is widely used in oil colors, fat pencils, modeling pastes, water colors, acrylic colors and many more. Its non-staining property contribute a great deal in it's success in the artists' colors industry.

Laundry Grade

“Laundry blue" is a solution of synthetic ultramarine that is widely used to improve the appearance of textiles, especially white fabrics. White fabrics acquire a slight color cast after use. Since blue and yellow are complementary colors in the subtractive color model of color perception, adding a trace of blue color to the slightly off-white color of these fabrics makes them appear whiter.

Ultramarine blue is the most commonly used laundry blue. It gives a violet blue color and makes a fine powder and thus becomes a suitable blue for laundry. It is safe to use as it is not harmful to the fabrics. Bluing is to be done only when the fabric is free from soap or detergent used for washing the cloth. Ultramarine blue being not insoluble in water, the coloring matter is held in suspension, and so the water must be stirred each time before use.

Laundry Grade

Thursday, 14 March 2013

Start a Malt Extracting Business

Malt Extract Product Portfolio  

Start a Malt Extracting Business
Malt extract is thick viscous brown liquid with a characteristic sweetish taste of barley malt aroma and flavor. The product is produced from high-quality barley malt own production. Technology of production of malt extracts provide soft modes of condensation which needed to keep most of the biologically active substances presented in germinated grains of barley.

Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms that can be used by yeast. Malt also contains small amounts of other sugars, such as sucrose and fructose, which are not products of starch modification but were already in the grain.
The term "malt" refers to several products of the process: the grains to which this process has been applied, for example malted barley; the sugar, heavy in maltose, derived from such grains, such as the baker's malt used in various cereals; or a product based on malted milk, similar to a malted milkshake (i.e., "malts").

Malt extracts may be used in:
  • brewing industry and craft beer production.
  • dry (cereal) breakfast, cereals, kozinaki.
  • fillers in milk beverages and milk products.
  • cereal bars and granola.
  • snacks, crackers and cookies
  • chocolate industry.
  • bakery and pastas.
  • energy beverages.
  • malt based drinks.
  • pharmaceuticals.
  • malted milks, ice cream and yoghurts.
  • confectionery and desserts.
  • pet foods.

Malting Process
Malting is the process of converting barley into malt, for use in brewingdistilling, or in foods and takes place in a maltings, sometimes called a malthouse, or a malting floor. The sprouted barley is kiln-dried by spreading it on a perforated wooden floor. Smoke, coming from an oasting fireplace (via smoke channels) is then used to heat the wooden floor and the sprouted grains. The temperature is usually around 55 °C (131 °F). A typical floor maltings is a long, single-storey building with a floor that slopes slightly from one end of the building to the other. Floor maltings began to be phased out in the 1940s in favour of "pneumatic plants". Here, large industrial fans are used to blow air through the germinating grain beds and to pass hot air through the malt being kilned. Like floor maltings, these pneumatic plants are batch processes, but of considerably greater size, typically 100 ton batches compared with 20 ton batches for floor malting.
The malting process starts with drying the grains to a moisture content below 14%, and then storing for around six weeks to overcome seed dormancy. When ready, the grain is immersed or steeped in water two or three times over two or three days to allow the grain to absorb moisture and to start to sprout. When the grain has a moisture content of around 46%, it is transferred to the malting or germination floor, where it is constantly turned over for around five days while it is air-dried. The grain at this point is called "green malt". The green malt is then kiln-dried to the desired colour and specification.Malts range in colour from very pale through crystal and amber to chocolate or black malts.
Malt Extract
Malt extract is used in beer and breads to create various flavors and as a sugar souce for yeast development. Malt extract can be purchased in dry, powder form, or wet, syrup form. Dry powder form can be kept in dry storage without any special packaging. Pre-made malt extract is typically purchased in cans if it's in syrup form. If you make your own syrup malt extract, it should be used right away or canned to keep it from spoiling. One benefit of making your own malt extract is that you can make it as dark or light as you want during the toasting process.
Malt Making Process
Malt making process is the beginning of making many alcoholic beverages starting with AL and ending with whiskey.
Malt or malt extract is something that brewers used to make by themselves but with the dividing of various jobs it became cheaper to buy the ready-made malt prepared by a Maltster. The maltmaking process itself is rather simple because all it the sprouting of seeds from certain grain producing plants. The most common ones used in the brewing process are barley or rye although other grains can be used such as wheat, corn, rice or potatoes. The Maltster uses barley that is well rounded and firm. The maltmaking process is performed so that sprouting the barley changes its starch into sugar. The first step in this process is to soak the barley in a tub of water. After about an hour the good grains will sink to the bottom of the water and the grains that will not germinate or are damaged will float on the surface. Remove the floating grains from the surface and discard them or use them for animal feed. Once the barley is well soaked and soft it is spread out evenly on a smooth wooden floor forming a layer from six to eight cm thick. During this process the sprouting barley has to germinate for a week to ten days. The finished sprouts are about two thirds the length of the grain when finished. Once it has germinated the sprouts are put on a floor to dry in a layer 2 to 3 cm thick. This layer is turned over seven to nine times a day with a rake until malted grains are thoroughly dry.
The next step is roasting the sprouts. This is done by placing the sprouts in a container with a screen bottom and forcing a current of hot air out through the sprouts. There are several different grades of roasting that can be done. These range from light, medium, dark and black. The different colors are produced by using different temperatures the lowest of which is about the boiling point of water, and the highest which produces black malt is about 350°C. Black malt is used in making some of the heavier English such as Porter and Stout. The lighter colored balls are used for different purposes but most of them are made into beer. This is also the beginning process for making different kinds of whiskey depending upon the grain or grains malted.
The next step in making malt is called mashing. Here the grain that has been sprouted is ground into mash after the rootlet’s have been winnowed out of the finished the match by directing a current of air through the sprouts that literally blows the rootlets away. For small-scale use you can grind the sprouts with a meat grinder using a fine cutting head on the grinder.
The mash is placed into a kettle of boiling water dissolves the contained sugar. The residue left from this process is quite rich in protein and makes very good cattle feed. What we have now is called wort and has many different uses in making alcoholic beverages ranging from ale to whiskey.
The dissolved sugar is filtered from the solids which are discarded. The discarded portion is often used for animal food. To get malt extract the sugar water is evaporated into a thick liquid or a dry rosinous mass. Usually the excess water is evaporated commercially in a vacuum pan although it can also be done in a common kettle. All you need is time and patience.
You’ll have to experiment with sprouting barley before you make a full-sized batch to get a feel for the process.


Incoming grain is received at moisture levels of between 10% and 12%. Every load is sampled, inspected and tested at the intake point. Once tipped the grain is cleaned through imported screeners to remove stones, foreign objects, dust and straw. Once the dressing and drying processes are complete, the grain is stored in silo.
Malt Grain
There are five stages in the process of converting barley into malt. The Malt Company India Pvt. Limited Produce the best malt by following step. 
How Malt Is Made ?
Barley Grading
Malt Cleaning & Greading

Malt Extracting Plant Manufactures
Registerd Office
Registered & Corporate Office
Address : 13 Milestone, Mathura Road
Faridabad, Haryana-121 003 (India)
Phone : +(91)-(129)-4183700 / 4183799
Fax : +(91)-(129)-2277441 / 4183777
E-mail : info@sspindia.commarketing@ssp.co.in

Thursday, 7 March 2013

Start a Yeast Manufacturing Unit


Start a Yeast Manufacturing Unit
What is Yeast?
Yeast are single-celled fungi. As fungi, they are related to the other fungi that people are more familiar with, including: edible mushrooms available at the supermarket, common baker's yeast used to leaven bread, molds that ripen blue cheese, and the molds that produce antibiotics for medical and veterinary use. 

Yeast cells are egg-shaped and can only be seen with a microscope. It takes 20,000,000,000 (twenty billion) yeast cells to weigh one gram, or 1/28 of an ounce, of cake yeast.

A tiny organism with a long name
The scientific name for the yeast that baker's use is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, or "sugar-eating fungus". A very long name for such a tiny organism! This species of yeast is very strong and capable of fermentation, the process that causes bread dough to rise.

A fungus with a sweet tooth
Yeast cells digest food to obtain energy for growth. Their favorite food is sugar in its various forms: sucrose (beet or cane sugar), fructose and glucose (found in honey, molasses, maple syrup and fruit), and maltose (derived from starch in flour).

The process, alcoholic fermentation, produces useful end products, carbon dioxide (gas) and ethyl alcohol. These end products are released by the yeast cells into the surrounding liquid in the dough. In bread baking, when yeast ferments the sugars available from the flour and/or from added sugar, the carbon dioxide gas cannot escape because the dough is elastic and stretchable. As a result of this expanding gas, the dough inflates, or rises. Thus, the term "yeast-leavened breads" was added to the vocabulary of the world of baking.

The ethyl alcohol (and other compounds) produced during fermentation produce the typical flavor and aroma of yeast-leavened breads.

Fermentation in nature
Fermentation occurs naturally in nature. For instance, many berries break open in late fall when they are overripe and full of sugar. Natural yeast organisms, so small they cannot be seen with the naked eye, lodge on the surface of these berries, which then become fermented and alcoholic.
Yeast in History
Yeast can be considered man's oldest industrial microorganism. It's likely that man used yeast before the development of a written language. Hieroglyphics suggest that the ancient Egyptian civilizations were using yeast and the process of fermentation to produce alcoholic beverages and to leaven bread over 5,000 years ago. The biochemical process of fermentation that is responsible for these actions was not understood and undoubtably looked upon by early man as a mysterious and even magical phenomenon.

Leaven, mentioned in the Bible, was a soft, dough-type medium kept from one bread baking session to another. A small portion of this dough was used to start or leaven each new lot of bread dough.

It is believed that since early times, leavening mixtures for bread making were formed by natural contaminants in flour such as wild yeast and lactobacilli, organisms also present in milk.

Yeast Today
It was not until the invention of the microscope, followed by the pioneering scientific work of Louis Pasteur in the late 1860's, that yeast was identified as a living organism and the agent responsible for alcoholic fermentation and dough leavening. Shortly following these discoveries, it became possible to isolate yeast in pure culture form. With the newfound knowledge that yeast was a living organism and the ability to isolate yeast strains in pure culture form, the stage was set for commercial produciton of baker's yeast that began around the turn of the 20th century.


When you hear the word "yeast", what do you think of? No doubt you think of the type of yeast used in baking breads.

However, through the selection of strains and development of propagation techniques, more specific applications of yeast are now being found in many different industries, including brewing, malting, farming (animal feeds), pharmaceuticals and dietetics.

The three types of yeast we will explore:
  • Baker's Yeast
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Brewer's Yeast
Yeast IndustryThe yeast industry is the oldest in the field of biotechnology. It is a high-tech industry which has benefited from many scientific advances.
Its products are the result of ongoing research and development. The classical genetics technology has ensured the adaptation of the strains to the needs of the European bakery market and also to those of the whole world.
The culture processes has improved due to using the best knowledge of biology and cell physiology. A perfect command of raw materials and manufacturing technique, advanced automation, together with logistics monitoring guarantee the quality of products.The yeast industry is a heavy industry, meaning capital dependent, requiring an investment of 3 euros to get a turnover of 1 euro.


The manufacturing process for yeast can be likened to farming - it involves preparation, seeding, cultivation and harvesting.

As you learned in The Story of Yeast, the favorite food for yeast is sugar. In the commercial production of yeast, molasses is used to provide this sugar source. Molasses is a by-product of the refining of sugar beets and sugar cane. Either cane molasses or beet molasses can be used, however, some yeast manufacturers prefer a mixture of the two varieties.

Quality Assurance
In all the yeast processes, utmost care is taken to produce a product of the highest possible quality and purity. Samples are routinely checked by the laboratory and frequent cleaning and sterilization of the equipment are conducted to assure the proper standards are met.


Before feeding molasses to the yeast cells, it must be clarified and sterilized. This is done in order to assure the final yeast color. The sterilizing also prevents bacteria and other organisms from being introduced during manufacturing.

The molasses is then diluted with water, adjusted for acidity, heated until almost boiling and filtered through heavy clothes.

The seed yeast is a carefully maintained laboratory culture so as to avoid contamination by "wild" yeast present in the air. Yeast seeds are selected with care according to the type of yeast to be produced and the specific characteristics desired. All cultures are laboratory pure; all transfers are made with absolute sterility; all vessels are completely sterilized.

The "seed yeast" is placed in small flasks where it is allowed to grow. It is then transferred in a series of steps from these small flasks to tanks of about 1,000 gallons in volume. Now known as "stock yeast", it is separated from the alcohol generated by the fermentation and stored in refrigerated tanks for the subsequent fermentation cultivation.


The cultivation or advancement of the fermentation process is accomplished in large 40,000-gallon vessels. It is impractical at this point to sterilize such large vessels but careful cleaning with steam assures cleanliness and quality.

The "stock yeast" is fed measured quantities of molasses and large quantities of air. The temperature is carefully controlled and acidity (pH) frequently adjusted through the addition of ammonium salts. This process is continued until the yeast achieves the capacity of these 40,000-gallon fermenting tanks. The yeast is then harvested.


The harvesting of yeast is nothing more than concentrating the yeast cells by passing the fermented liquid through large centrifugal pumps called "separators". This process is similar to spinning clothes dry in a washing machine. The result is an off-white liquid called "cream yeast". Further processing/drying is dependent on the type of yeast desired - cake yeast, active dry yeast or instant yeast.


Plant and Machinery
The list of plant and machineries / utilities required for production of 10 MT per day finished product is
summarized in following table:

        List of Plant and Machinery             Particulars Quantity                                    Suppliers
   1. Molasses Storage & Sterilization                    4                                 Tanks 4 Praj Industries, Pune
  2. Twin lobe air blower/compressors
     (8-10 psi) & filters                                             1                     Ingersol-Rand India Ltd, Ahmedabad
  3.  Diesel generating set to runstirrers in 
     fermentation tanks                                            2                                 Super Nova Engineering- Chhatral
   4. Boiler Oil fired                                                 1                                        Thermax Ltd, Pune
   5.Heat exchanger                                                2                                     Praj Industries, Pune
                                                                                                               Alfa-Laval Ltd, Pune

6.Refrigeration unit for freezedrying of yeast            1                                  Frick India Ltd- New Delhi
7 Centrifugal separator                                          4                                     Alfa-Laval Ltd, Pune
8.Extruder                                                            2                     Campbell WrapperMachinery,AndhraPradesh                                         

9. Electricals                                                      Lot                          Kirloskar Electric Co. Ltd., Karnataka
10.Piping, Pumps, Valves                                     Lot                           R.R Industries, New Delhi 
11.D.M Plant                                                        1                             Doshi-ion exchange P. Ltd.
12.Effluent Treatment Plant                                    1                           Akar Impex Private Limited, Noida
                                                                                                 Oilex Engineers (India) Pvt Ltd., Mumbai
13.Laboratory equipments                                    Lot                                   Sakova Scientific Co., Mumbai

Equipment for the production of Fresh Yeas
Rotary Vacuum Filters
For dehydrating yeast cream for the production of fresh yeast, instant yeast and active dry yeast.

Standard sizes: 4, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 sq. m.

Sanitary and easy-to-clean design.

The automation systems make the Rotary Filter start and stop automatically following a preset program, according to the filling level in the mixer hopper of the Extruder.

Very high outputs are obtained. Moreover, the dry matter of the produced yeast can be adjusted between 28 % and 34 % for fresh yeast and up to 40 % for instant yeast.

We supply complete and automatic systems, including all ancillary and automation units, such as:
Intermediate cream and precoat preparation tank, with yeast cream saltingsystem in line and automatic cream feeding system to the Rotary Filter.

Control box with touch screen for controlling and adjusting the Rotary Filter.

The control and adjustment of the Rotary Filter can also be made from the touch screen of the fresh yeast Packaging Line or from the touch screen that can be installed near the Noodle Extruder, for the production of instant yeast.

Thanks to this control system and the equipment and automation degree of our machines, no operator is required during the automatic filtration process of the Rotary Filter.

Motor-vacuum pump unit, optionally also made of stainless steel.

Special design according to the operation conditions this equipment is submitted to.

With non-cavitation valve of Proconor design and automatic water supply system to the liquid ring.

Water supply system to the washing system, including automation device for shutting and opening the water supply.

Noodle Extruders
Machines and equipment required between the discharge of yeast at the Rotary Filter and the loading of the yeast noodles into the Dryers, amoung which we would like to point out:
Mixer-Extruders for extruding yeast noodles with 0.5 mm diameter or more, for the production of instant yeast and active dry yeast.

Availability of 2 machine sizes to suit the production requirements and operation cycle of the Dryers, as detailed below:

* Model CP-AEF/2500. Production capacity of 2,500 kg/h

* Model CP-AEF/5000. Production capacity of 5,000 kg/h.

Mixing Systems to mix the emulsifiers with the yeast. Two different sizes (for the production of 2.5 t/hour and 5 t/hour), as well as different automation possibilities for the discharge, according to the layout of the whole system.

System to add, control and adjust the emulsifiers that are added to the yeast at the Rotary Filter outlet.