Monday, 3 November 2014

Start a Business of Genetic Engineering


 Start a Business of Genetic Engineering


Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nucleaseGene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations.
Genetic engineering alters the genetic make-up of an organism using techniques that remove heritable material or that introduce DNA prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then fused or hybridized with the host. This involves usingrecombinant nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection and micro-encapsulationtechniques.

History
An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973 and GM mice were generated in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. Glofish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in the United States December in 2003.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.

Process


The first step is to choose and isolate the gene that will be inserted into the genetically modified organism. As of 2012, most commercialised GM plants have genes transferred into them that provide protection against insects or tolerance to herbicides. The gene can be isolated using restriction enzymes to cut DNA into fragments and gel electrophoresis to separate them out according to length. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can also be used to amplify up a gene segment, which can then be isolated through gel electrophoresis. If the chosen gene or the donor organism's genome has been well studied it may be present in a genetic library. If the DNA sequence is known, but no copies of the gene are available, it can be artificially synthesized.
The gene to be inserted into the genetically modified organism must be combined with other genetic elements in order for it to work properly. The gene can also be modified at this stage for better expression or effectiveness. As well as the gene to be inserted most constructs contain a promoter and terminator region as well as a selectable marker gene. The promoter region initiates transcription of the gene and can be used to control the location and level of gene expression, while the terminator region ends transcription. The selectable marker, which in most cases confers antibiotic resistance to the organism it is expressed in, is needed to determine which cells are transformed with the new gene. The constructs are made using recombinant DNA techniques, such as restriction digests, ligations and molecular cloning.The manipulation of the DNA generally occurs within a plasmid.
The most common form of genetic engineering involves inserting new genetic material randomly within the host genome. Other techniques allow new genetic material to be inserted at a specific location in the host genome or generate mutations at desired genomic loci capable of knocking out endogenous genes. The technique of gene targeting uses homologous recombination to target desired changes to a specific endogenous gene. This tends to occur at a relatively low frequency in plants and animals and generally requires the use of selectable markers. The frequency of gene targeting can be greatly enhanced with the use of engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases,engineeredhoming endonucleases, or nucleases created from TAL effectors. In addition to enhancing gene targeting, engineered nucleases can also be used to introduce mutations at endogenous genes that generate a gene knockout.
Application
Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organisms.

Medicine

In medicine, genetic engineering has been used to mass-produce insulin, human growth hormones, follistim (for treating infertility), human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines and many other drugs. Vaccination generally involves injecting weak, live, killed or inactivated forms of viruses or their toxins into the person being immunized. Genetically engineered viruses are being developed that can still confer immunity, but lack the infectious sequences.

Research

Genetic engineering is an important tool for natural scientists. Genes and other genetic information from a wide range of organisms are transformed into bacteria for storage and modification, creating genetically modified bacteria in the process. Bacteria are cheap, easy to grow, clonal, multiply quickly, relatively easy to transform and can be stored at -80 °C almost indefinitely. Once a gene is isolated it can be stored inside the bacteria providing an unlimited supply for research

.Industrial

Using genetic engineering techniques one can transform microorganisms such as bacteria or yeast, or transform cells from multicellular organisms such as insects or mammals, with a gene coding for a useful protein, such as an enzyme, so that the transformed organism will overexpress the desired protein. One can manufacture mass quantities of the protein by growing the transformed organism in bioreactor equipment using techniques of industrial fermentation, and then purifying the protein.


Agriculture

One of the best-known and controversial applications of genetic engineering is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or genetically modified organisms, such as genetically modified fish, which are used to produce genetically modified food and materials with diverse uses.

Genetic Engineering Careers


Good genes aren't always a matter of luck. Sometimes, they're the work of genetic engineers. Genetic engineering, or the scientific altering of DNA, is a subspecialty of biomedical engineering. On top of diverse career options, genetic engineers enjoy above-average incomes and job opportunities. Genetic engineers earned a median annual income of $84,760 as of May 2011, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, with projected job growth of at least 29 percent from 2010 to 2020.
Genetic engineers who choose careers in human health focus on treatment of chronic illness. They developed genetically engineered insulin for diabetes patients in the 1980s, and have since created genetically engineered clot-busters to stop heart attacks, proteins and antibodies to fight cancer, vaccines for hepatitis B, hormones to halt anemia and antibodies to prevent organ rejections in transplant patients. Genetic engineers also turn otherwise harmful viruses or bacteria into messengers that carry therapeutic drugs to specific tissues. Genetic codes help them to uncover hereditary defects ranging from cystic fibrosis to hemophilia. Though many inherited conditions were not treatable as of 2012, genetic engineers are researching methods to fix faulty DNA codes. In the absence of treatments, genetic engineers report results of genetic testing to counselors who help patients prepare for potential diagnosis and treatment.

Genetic Engineering is Big Business

In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a genetically-altered micro-organism could be patented. With that door now open to profit, private genetic research soared.
Most people think positively about the advancements in biotechnology in areas like medicine, which is indeed a big part of the industry. Leading geneticists are hot on the trail to eradicating cancer and the latest in cloning has successfully grown body parts like the human ear. What this means for vital organ transplants is extraordinary.
As we step into 2010, biotechnology is common practice in a many of today’s industries.
Bio-fuels, based on plants like corn or animal by-products, are supplementing and, can actually replace, our dependence on oil and natural gas.
Gene therapy involves the replacement or repair of defective genes and may lead to a cure for cancer and many other diseases. Bio-identical hormones are helping women navigate through menopause and are in the lead for that fountain of youth formula we all hope for.

Genetic Engineering from a Laptop


Today we have the ability to do genetic engineering from a laptop, and Hessel is trying to inform and inspire a new generation of scientists who are willing to grasp the life-transforming potential of this powerful new tool.

The idea of engineering life artificially tends to conjure up images of unpredictable life forms that grow out of control, bringing harm and disease to the planet. But that’s the stuff of science fiction. According to Hessel, we should be more worried about electronic warfare and insidious hacking activities than synthetic life forms.
“I find computers far freakier than any living organism,” he says. “With most microbes, you wash your hands, bleach the counter, and they’re gone. But who’s going to turn off all the computers?”
Besides, biological information travels slowly, filtering through ecosystems, confronting at every step of the way the formidable human immune system and modern medical technologies that thwart its progress.
“To examine the flow of biological information, you start with the first person who catches a cold,” Hessel explains. “The spread of that new cold around the world takes months. That’s incredibly slow compared to a tweet, which can spread around the world nearly instantly. Compared to electronic information, I don’t think biological information has a hope.”
Hessel thinks of biological information in computer terms. Bacteria are processors; viruses are software; genomes are operating systems. And most importantly, human beings are programmers who create apps that add new features to existing genomes. “It doesn’t matter whether you engineer something or whether you evolve something,” he says. “You kind of end up at the same place.”
By programming living systems, Hessel suggests, we will reach into every single area where biology operates and change our planet: we will control the food supply, create new drugs and build renewable fuels. Grass will spread the internet everywhere it grows.
This utopia is not so far away. Genetic engineering has brought us to a point where we can think about bypassing natural selection to create our own species in the environments we choose. Hessel calls it a “parallel biology,” one that allows us to mix and match different organisms to generate synthetic offshoots of the tree of life.
“It’s completely outside of the Darwinian philosophy of incremental change,” Hessel says. “We basically throw all the old rules out, and now we get to apply human needs to it. And that’s pretty cool.”
As Google satellites reveal, we have already transformed the face of the earth through our technological advancements. We just haven’t done it in the most intelligent fashion.
“We’re literally changing this entire planet by putting up buildings and creating gadgets with plastic and toxic materials,” Hessel says. “We’re doing it with stuff that isn’t very friendly to life. We’re putting living things to the periphery and we’re poisoning ourselves. I think we have to shift our thinking a little bit and start remembering that we’re living organisms and we have dependence that involves all the other living organisms on this planet.”
Hessel is exuberant about the biological possibilities that lie ahead. He says we should let fun and curiosity drive genetic research, not the narrow needs of markets. At the very least, we have to learn to think exponentially.
“If you think about taking 30 steps, you know exactly how far you’re going to go and where you’ll end up,” Hessel says. “But if you take 30 exponential steps, you’ve walked around the world over 10 times.” It’s a doubling factor that our brains can’t quite grasp because we are hardwired to conceptualize in linear fashion, moving steadily in one direction, rather than taking boundless leaps to wherever."
“Everything’s changing except our thinking, which is the slowest thing,” Hessel says. “When it comes to the rate of change in technology, human beings are the limiting factor.”

Genetic Engineering Institutions

List of Ten Excellent Genetic Engineering Schools

School NameDistinctionLocation
Arizona State UniversityStudents in the School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering have access to 21 distinct labs.Tempe, AZ
Ohio State University-Main CampusStudents can attend events such as an Engineering Career Success Conference and an Engineering EXPO.Columbus, OH
Pennsylvania State University-Main CampusStudents can participate in outreach services through the Biomedical Engineering Society and research opportunities in the field.University Park, PA
Purdue University-Main CampusPurdue tied for 8th place on U.S. News & World Report's 2014 list of best engineering schools.West Lafayette, IN
University of California-Los AngelesBioengineering faculty have been recognized by publications and organizations such as Popular Science Magazine and the National Institute of Health.Los Angeles, CA
University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignThe university's Department of Bioengineering recently received $100 million from the Grainger Engineering Breakthroughs Initiative.Champaign, IL
University of Michigan-Ann ArborAlong with Purdue, U-M tied for 8th place on U.S. News & World Report's 2014 list of best engineering schools.Ann Arbor, MI
University of Minnesota-Twin CitiesThe engineering school offers students access to a nearby medical school, as well as 300 medical device companies in the area.Minneapolis, MN
University of Texas at AustinOn its 2014 list of best engineering schools, U.S. News & World Report ranked UT-Austin in tenth place.Austin, TX
University of Washington-Seattle CampusThe university tied for seventh-place ranking on U.S. News & World Report's 2014 list of best schools offering graduate programs in bioengineering.Seattle, WA


For More details: http://agbiosafety.unl.edu/basic_genetics.shtml








60 comments:

  1. Thanks for these amazing information. Hope so that this will help most of the businessmen in their works to perform. If you need any help related to advertisements then you may take help from the free advertising sites so as to reach people with ease and in less time and money.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Insightful information. One can also get the admission in top 10 architecture colleges in maharashtra only at SMMCA Nagpur. Thanks for sharing.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Nice Article
    https://indglobal.in/

    ReplyDelete
  4. Your article has proven useful to me. It’s very informative and you are obviously very knowledgeable in this area. You have opened my eyes to varying views on this topic with interesting and solid content. businessmarketonline.com

    ReplyDelete
  5. There is a new trend in online trading, and that is binary options trading. Since more and more people want to trade on the global markets, it is very important to simplify the process of iq option account open and make it easier for everyone. The main reason why binary options are so successful nowadays it's the fact that it is the simplest way of trading, and people like simple things.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Valuable Customer Service Tips for the home based business. Make good customer service become Tucson Tax Service customer service by finding out what the customer needs.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hi buddy i open your site by using my windows xp, and it look's really good here. cccam server

    ReplyDelete
  8. A lot of American health care systems' resources are devoted to the management and treatment of chronic conditions. Management of chronic health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and hypothyroidism is a key part of most basic care physician's work. In the conventional model, the medical doctor sees a patient for an incident of Chronic Care Management Software examines the status of the conditions, offers suggestions, alters medications, and instructs any determined testing. The patients are counseled again when they are told to revisit for follow-up care.

    ReplyDelete
  9. After I initially commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the exact same comment. There has to be an easy method you are able to remove me from that service? Kudos! Beautiful Captions

    ReplyDelete
  10. I have to convey my respect for your kindness for all those that require guidance on this one field. Your special commitment to passing the solution up and down has been incredibly functional and has continually empowered most people just like me to achieve their dreams. Your amazing insightful information entails much to me and especially to my peers. Thanks a ton; from all of us. Fathers Day Wallpaper Gallery

    ReplyDelete
  11. Your article has proven useful to me. It’s very informative and you are obviously very knowledgeable in this area. You have opened my eyes to varying views on this topic with interesting and solid content. f8 auto liker

    ReplyDelete
  12. More and more employers are looking at direct deposit of payroll as the preferred method of paying employees. This article examines the concept of direct deposit, including the benefits, concerns and legal considerations. contabilidade para empresas offshore

    ReplyDelete
  13. If you want to know everything about the Ottawa mortgage rates, you have to take into account doing some research regarding the real estate market in this thriving city and subsequently the most well evaluated portions of land in the area. We all know that taking home loans and evaluating the mortgage value is something that must be left on the shoulders of specialised agents or brokers in the field, but it can never hurt to do a little bit of background checking beforehand in order to have a full picture of the city's communities and neighbourhoods value prior to discussing them with an expert financial broker. First things firsts, one must take into account the fact that Ottawa is the administrative capital of Canada, although it is only the 4th city in dimensions. human resource consulting ottawa

    ReplyDelete
  14. Discover the eye health benefits of this delicious eye food that is a popular summer treat for increasing your vision health. In this article find out the reasons why you should make this healthy vision food a regular part of your diet. calgary optical stores

    ReplyDelete
  15. House Lawyers… [...]just below, are some totally unrelated sites to ours, however, they are definitely worth checking out[...]… Happy Friendship Day Jokes Groom

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hi...

    First of all, I would like to thank you for sharing such a wonderful post with us.
    This is amazing! Informative and complete in details. Thank you 🙂 Will definitely bookmark this.

    free website traffic generator

    ReplyDelete
  17. I have been checking out a few of your stories and i must say nice stuff. I will surely bookmark your website happy grandparents day grandparents day happy grandparents day quotes grandparents day quotes Tom Cruise wife

    ReplyDelete
  18. Masterminding Does this press release infringe on your copyright? It is a violation of our terms and conditions for writers to submit material which they did not write and claim it as their own. happy grandparents day grandparents day happy grandparents day quotes grandparents day quotes Tom Cruise wife

    ReplyDelete
  19. Superb kind of work by the author as on this particular topic people needs more precise information and special attention to it. Thanks a lot.
    Business

    ReplyDelete
  20. I must say, as a lot as I enjoyed reading what you had to say, I couldnt help but lose interest after a while. Its as if you had a wonderful grasp on the subject matter, but you forgot to include your readers. Perhaps you should think about this from far more than one angle. Or maybe you shouldnt generalise so considerably. Its better if you think about what others may have to say instead of just going for a gut reaction to the subject. Think about adjusting your own believed process and giving others who may read this the benefit of the doubt. happy halloween 2018

    ReplyDelete
  21. Useful information and wonderful design you got here! I would like to thank you for sharing your ideas and putting the time into the articles you publish! Nice work! Happy Halloween Day

    ReplyDelete
  22. I totally got what you had to say in your post. i’m going to give you a thumbs up for excellent work. ThanksGiving

    ReplyDelete
  23. nice article! very useful information. Keep sharing this kind of valuable blogs regularly. Mera kisan is one of the renowned organic product dealers in all over India. To buy Organic Brown Sugar, Organic Cashew , Organic Rice
    Organic Jaggery Powder click here

    ReplyDelete
  24. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. thanks happy new year images 2019 happy new year 2019 images happy new year images and quotes happy new year images and wishes Happy new year images HD download

    ReplyDelete
  25. Shen Tong is a sequential entrepreneur, writer/poet, angel investor, social activist, foodie, and a film buff. Being one of Newsweek’s People of the Year in 1989, Shen Tong was born in 1968, in Beijing.
    Shen Tong found business accelerators; FoodFutureCo in 2015 and Food-X in 2014. Shen Tong was recognized by Fast Company as one of "The World's Top 10 Most Innovative Companies of 2015 in the Food sector. Shen Tong became an entrepreneur in the fields of media, software and investor since the late 1990s. Shen Tong is on the board of Food Tank. Shen Tong is the founder and president of VFinity, which makes software tools and web applications for multimedia and multilingual search, media production, archiving, and media distribution. Shen Tong is pretty famous for his promotion of ‘context media’ essentially because of his speech at a supersession of National Association of Broadcasters in Las Vegas. Shen Tong also became the founder of an NGO focussing on higher education and culture in the mid-1990s, a center in Budapest for journalists, liberal scholars, writers, and educationists studying changing societies with funding from Open Society Institute and the Central European University of George Soros. Shen Tong shifted to New York from Massachusetts in the year 2000 with the intention of giving his 100% focus on business.





    ReplyDelete
  26. I just put the link of your blog on my Facebook Wall. very nice blog indeed..”..:
    Your blog is one of a kind, i love the way you organize the topics.:,”~
    I really love the way you discuss this kind of topic.
    Lambingan

    ReplyDelete
  27. Excellently written article, doubts all bloggers offered the identical content since you, the internet has to be far better place. Please stay the best!
    Your talent is really appreciated!!
    DOWNHILL SNOWBOARD 3

    ReplyDelete
  28. I discovered your website internet site online and appearance a couple of your early posts. Always maintain inside the top notch operate. I additional your Rss to my MSN News Reader. Seeking toward reading much more on your part down the road!… pawn shops in az

    ReplyDelete
  29. Our virtual intelligence web development company has certified web development professionals who understand the value of prestigious architecture and integrated branding to attract the customer and keep them engaged from the initial sight of your website.
    Our Web development services will facilitate your company to increase product knowledge.We have a team of full-stack Android app developers for excellent APP Development, having a robust command on PHP, Java, C, C++, HTML, and CSS to develop high-end Android apps for smartphones, tablets, wearable devices, and Android TVs. Our team of Android programmers develops an app for almost all the categories of Google Play Store, including Photo & Video, Health & Fitness, Education & Learning, Real Estate, Travel & Tourism and E-commerce.
    We offer the entire managing service for client interaction with the assorted stakeholders.

    For more info Visit Virtual intelligence -: https://www.virtualintelligenceonline.com/
    Connect to Virtual Intelligence through given Links -:
    Facebook -: Virtual Intelligence
    Instagram -: Virtual Intelligence
    Twitter -: Virtual Intelligence
    Linked -: Virtual Intelligence

    virtual intelligence providers
    Virtual Intelligence Web development IT Company in Noida
    Virtual Intelligence is the Best IT Company in Noida
    Which provides the Best Seo services, website designing services.
    Top 10 IT Company in NCR
    Best Digital Marketing company in India
    Best Mobile Apps,
    Andriod Development Company in Noida,
    Best Training Company in Noida.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Many business owners are working so hard at their business that they fail to enjoy the rewards of being the business owner. If you are letting the life of your business overrule the business of living your life, then it is time to begin turning the tides. Finding ways to make your business work harder for you and your family is the reason we all started our businesses in the first place. If your business is obstructing your efforts to enjoy life with friends and family, this is a problem. We all know a lot of work goes into building a successful business, but if it is browse around this website all your time, effort and energy... is it worth it? Here are 5 ways to have your business working harder for you and your family.

    ReplyDelete
  31. In the last few months there have been many Health Care Reform rules and regulations updated by the Click here and Human Services Department. But despite all the media coverage of these events, many people still hold fast to certain myths surrounding ObamaCare. We'll uncover and dislodge these clinging myths by pushing them off the ledge of reality, where they don't belong.

    ReplyDelete
  32. In these times of wide internet usage, people and businesses are also going online to widen their reach and their market. Of course, the internet has a worldwide reach and that can be a great advantage for businesses. However, there are also a lot of things that you have to consider to beat competition and make your online advertising effective as well. www.brainclubs.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. In the last few months there have been many Health Care Reform rules and regulations updated by the Health and Human Services Department. But despite all the media coverage of these events, many people still hold fast to certain myths surrounding ObamaCare. We'll uncover and dislodge these clinging myths by pushing them off the ledge of reality, where they don't belong.

    ReplyDelete
  34. If I were the one having to write this content, all these readers would Anti Termite Abu Dhabi disappointed. It’s a good thing you are the writer and you bring fresh ideas to us all. This is interesting.

    ReplyDelete
  35. World Facts For Children… [...]here are some links to sites that we link to because we think they are worth visiting[...]… App Free Download and Install

    ReplyDelete
  36. Making sure you know all about News is just here. survey bypasser online

    ReplyDelete
  37. Many business owners are working so hard at their business that they fail to enjoy the rewards of being the business owner. If you are letting the life of your business overrule the business of living your life, then it is time to begin turning the tides. Finding ways to make your business work harder for you and your family is the reason we all started our businesses in the first place. If your business is obstructing your efforts to enjoy life with friends and family, this is a problem. We all know a lot of work goes into building a successful business, but if it is consuming all your time, effort and energy... is it worth it? Here are 5 ways to have your business working harder for you and your family vladimir vrbaski republika

    ReplyDelete
  38. Sanjay Precision Industries is the best Industries in Ghaziabad and is a big manufacturer and supplier of many turned parts. Sanjay Precision provides the best quality of components with good finishing to its clients on average cost. The customers can demand their own design to the Industry by special order. If you want such components then contact Sanjay Precision.

    Turned Components
    CNC & VMC Turned Parts Exporter
    Sanjay Precision
    Turned Components Exporter
    Turned Components Exporter from Ghaziabad

    ReplyDelete
  39. Great post , I am going to spend more time researching this topic extratorrent.unblock.me

    ReplyDelete
  40. New York Travel Tips… [...]while the sites we link to below are completely unrelated to ours, we think they are worth a read, so have a look[...]… Guides

    ReplyDelete
  41. very good post, i surely enjoy this web site, persist in it amazon exclusive redmi 4a

    ReplyDelete
  42. As the 2008 recession lingers into its fourth year, many consumers have closed their wallets to a long list of "big ticket" purchases, and home improvements appear to be riding Capital Stock Example top of that list. With cash reserves at a premium, many home owners have simply decided to wait on making improvements, and understandably so.

    ReplyDelete
  43. The world is full of businesses but do you know how important they are? You know there are very big ones like Apple, BP and Amazon and very small ones like your local shop or window-cleaner. Grandad explains how all these businesses contribute to our daily life as importantly as the air we breathe and the food we eat. Without businesses he believes we would still be living in caves or mud huts, we would spend all our time searching for food and water. There would be no schools, no doctors, no police, no government,no cars, no television, nearly nothing, This is one of a series of articles aimed by Grandad at grandchildren everywhere. Grandad has learned many things over his lifetime in business. These articles can give you a flying start in life. Cash app help

    ReplyDelete