Friday, 30 December 2011

Start a Subabul Cultivation Business


(262). Start a Subabul Cultivation Business

Farm forestry can be one of the best means for afforestation of wastelands especially in areas with no assured irrigation which will in turn provide  raw material to industries. NABARD, as an apex institution with regard to policy, planning and operation in the field of agriculture and rural credit, is actively involved in extending credit support for development of rural areas along with other financial institutions. Development of wastelands through pulpwood plantations is identified as a thrust area for which NABARD is extending 100% refinance to banks at concessional rate of interest.
The National Forest Policy, specifically encourages Company-farmer Partnerships and states :
“As far as possible, a forest based industry should raise the raw material needed for meeting its own requirements, preferably by establishment of direct relationship between the factory and the individuals who can grow the material ………… the practice of supply of forest produce to industry at concessional prices should cease” 

Common Names: Subabul, Leucaena & ipil-ipil, etc.
Subabul ( Leucaena leucocephala) is a popular farm forestry tree in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh. It is estimated that in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh alone, Subabul is planted in area exceeding 50,000 ha.

It is one of the fast growing hardy evergreen species. It is a vigorous coppicer and responds well to pollarding, lopping & pruning. It has deep and strong taproot and even the seedlings are deep rooted. There are four types of subabul viz,
Hawaiian type: The plants are short bushy and remarkably drought tolerant. It is suited to hilly terrains in drought prone areas. It is a prolific seed producer and is good for fodder purpose.
Salvador type: Tall, tree like and fast growing having maximum annual biomass production. Possesses large leaves, pods and seeds than Hawaiian types. Responds to high fertilization.
Peru: Tall and extensively branching type and is ideal for fodder purpose.
Cunningham: It is a cross between Salvador and Peru types.

 Agro-climatic conditions
i. Ecology
Subabul is best suited for warm regions and grows well between 22 and 30ºC in regions of 500 to 2000 mm annual rainfall. Because of its strong and deep root system, the tree is highly drought resistant. It is restricted to elevations below 500 m but withstands variations in rainfall, sunlight, windstorm, slight frost and drought.
ii. Soil
It cannot withstand water logging. It requires deep well drained neutral soil and can tolerate saline and acid soil. It can also be grown in steep slopes, hilly terrains, gravelly areas and sandy loams. It can grow under a wide range of conditions as a range plant, roadside plant, in pastures, etc. The land should, however, be cleared of bushes, ploughed and levelled before sowing for better performance.
The tree grows very well under alkaline soils and also performs under dry clayey soils. The growth is average under sandy, acidic & dry gravel soils. The performance is poor under marshy, usar lands & in high altitudes.

iii Botanical features
The leaves are bipinnate, 15 to 20 cm long with 10 to 15 pairs of pinnate leaves. Inflorescence is globular and the flowers are white.

Commercial Uses:
Subabul wood can be used for light construction, poles, props, pulp, furniture, flooring and fuel wood. Subabul wood is an excellent fuel wood with a specific gravity of 0.45-0.55 and a high heating value of 4000 kcal/kg. Subabul forage has a high protein and carotene content and pellets or cubes are internationally marketed as animal feed.

 Silviculture / Cultivation practices
i. Planting of seedlings can be done with the onset of rains in May-June or Sept-October. Seed viability is high, but the hard seed coat posses dormancy. To hasten germination seeds are to be dipped in concentrated sulfuric acid for four minutes and then washed or put in hot water at 80ºC for four minutes. The seeds should be sundried afterwards for about one hour before sowing.
ii. A seed rate of 3-4 kg/ha is recommended. Sowing is preferably done during February-March in a nursery or in polythene bags or in situ at 2-3 cm depth. Seedlings (1.5 to 3 months old with 6-8 leaves) are planted in the main field. A spacing of 1 x 0.1 m is recommended for a pure crop of fodder, 1.5 x 0.2 m for planting in boundaries and borders of coconut gardens and 2 x 0.2 m when raised along boundaries.
iii Planting Material
Methods of propagation for raising plantation are : (i) Direct sowing of seeds; (ii) Bag Plantation; (iii) Naked seedlings collected from existing plantation regeneration.
iv Spacing adopted
The most common spacing adopted are 1.27m x 1.27m (50” x 50”) (i.e. 6200 plants/ha);  2m x 2m (2500 plants/ha);  3 x 1.5m  (2222 plants/ha). However, the recommended spacing is 1.5m x 1.5m (4445 plants/ha). Inter cultivation may not be possible from second year onwards.
v Weeding / Soil working
Two weedings / soil workings are required per year for the first 3 years of sowing / planting.
vi. Pests and diseases
Subabul generally has been free of serious insect & diseases, but is susceptible to jumping plant lice (psyllids) which have caused serious defoliation and mortality in some areas. Some varieties are susceptible to gummosis, which is most likely caused by Fusarium or Phytophtora species. Leaf spot fungus also can cause defoliation under wet conditions.

 Yield & Rotation
Harvesting is done at the end of fourth year. The average yield is 70 ton/ha. Farmers adopt a rotation of 4 year. Normally they go for 3 coppice crops. During second rotation, only 2 coppice shoots are  retained in each stem. The sale price for pulpwood is considered at Rs. 1000/ton.
The stumps removed from plantations after three rotations may fetch a rate of Rs. 350/- to Rs. 400/-ton for usage as fuel wood for tobacco barns.

 Markets & Marketing Arrangements
There is enormous demand for Subabul wood for pulp (raw material) from many paper industries.

 Unit Cost
The cost of cultivation of Subabul in one hectare at an espacement of 1.5mx1.5m i.e. 4445 Subabul plants per ha has been worked out at Rs. 40200/- per ha.  The details of various items of expenditure are viz., land preparation, digging of pits, plant and material, manure and fertilizer, plant protection, etc

You can get the whole information from Tropical Forest Research Institute (TFRI)

Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

Start a Jatropha Cultivation Business


(261) Start a Jatropha Cultivation Business

NABARD, as an apex institution with regard to policy, planning and operation in the field of agriculture and rural credit, is actively involved in extending credit support for renewable energy development in rural areas along with other financial institutions. Development of wastelands through energy plantations, biodiesel crops / tree borne oilseeds is identified as a thrust area for which NABARD is extending 100% refinance to banks at concessional rate of interest.
Among the many species, which can yield oil as a source of energy in the form of biodiesel, Jatropha curcas has been found most suitable due to its various favourable attributes like hardy nature, short gestation period, high oil recovery and quality of oil, etc. It can be planted on degraded lands through Joint Forest Management (JFM), farmer’s field boundaries, fallow lands and as agro forestry crop.

Jatropha curcas belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is thus closely related to other important cultivated plants like rubber, castor etc. It is believed to be a native of South America and Africa but later spread to other continents of the world by the Portuguese settlers.  The Arabs have been using this plant for medicinal purpose.  Today it is found in almost all the tropical and sub tropical regions of the world. 
There are more than 200 names for it all over the world, which indicates its significance to man, and the various possibilities of its use. In India, Jatropha curcas is found in almost all the states and is generally grown as a live fence for protection of agricultural fields from damage by livestock as it is not eaten by cattle or goat. 

It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes a whitish colored, water, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable conditions.
It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to-five lobed with spiral phyllotaxis.
The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flower usually slightly larger and occur in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth occurs, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers.
Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits.
A three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature.
The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow, after two to four months from fertilization. The blackish, thin shelled seeds are oblong and resemble small castor seeds.

Ecological Requirements
Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere- even on gravely, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks.
The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhances earthworm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the fertility of the soil.
Regarding climate, Jatropha curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought  by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes.
Cultivation practices
It can be easily propagated on massive scale by direct seeding as well as planting stem cuttings.  Hot and humid weather is preferred for good germination of seed.  Plants bear fruits in the beginning of winter.  Approximately 5-6 kgs. of seed is adequate to raise one hectare of plantation. The spacing maintained is about 2m x 2m and for high density planting 2m x 1m distance can be recommended.
Seeds or cuttings can be directly planted in the main field.  Some times the seedlings are grown in poly bags and then transplanted in the main field.  The land should be ploughed once or twice depending upon the nature of soil.  In direct planting system the seed/cuttings should be planted in the main field with onset of monsoon at a spacing indicated above.  Apart from organic manure, mixtures, fertilizers containing NPK should be applied near the planting hole.  To keep the land free from weeds in the initial stage, 3-4 hand weedings are necessary; it does not require supplementary irrigation.  However, the approximate yield of 1200 kg seed per hectare may be obtained from irrigated plantations in comparison to 750 kg seed (per hectare) from rainfed plantations.  This is expected from 3rd year onwards.  The economic life of the plant is about 35-40 years.  Jatropha oil is extracted by hydraulic press method after grinding and steaming of the seed.

Unit cost
The cost of cultivation of Jatropha curcas in one hectare at an espacement of 3m X 2m i.e., 1666 plants per ha has been worked out at Rs.25,826/- per ha. (unirrigated condition). The details of various items of expenditure are viz. land preparation, digging of pits, plant and material, manure and fertilizer, inter culture, watering and plant protection etc. 

Commercial uses of the Plant
The increasing gap between demand and supply of fuel wood leads to fast depletion of forest cover.  There is need to search for alternative source of energy derived from non-wood sources.  For this purpose high density plantation of Jatropha, as an energy crop, may provide energy on regular basis annually for a period of 40-45 years without replanting, unlike other fuel wood crops.  With suitable technology, jatropha could possibly be used as furnace fuel to facilitate electricity generation in a decentralized manner and at a lower cost as compared to the existing power generation system, which requires massive infrastructure for distribution of power.
Besides the above, the following additional benefits can also be expected:
a) Jatropha oil is a potential substitute for diesel providing the country cheap and renewable source of energy for transport & power and can effect sizeable savings on foreign exchange.
b)Jatropha oil has a very high saponification value and is being extensively used forsoap making, lubricants and candles.  The protein content in Jatropha oil cake may be used as a raw material for plastic and synthetic fibre.
c) Jatropha plant has high medicinal value.  The latex of Jatropha curcas contains an alkaloid known as Jatrophine, which is used in medicines.
d) Jatropha oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as organic manure.
e)Revegetation of barren and denuded hills with Jatropha plants combatsenvironmental pollution.
Thus, owing to its multiple uses, simple and cost effective technology, with or without irrigation makes it promising and profitable agro forestry crop ensuring optimum utilisation of land and manpower.  It is a crop with low capital investment, short gestation period, long productive period and unlimited employment potential in rural areas.

You can get the whole information from Tropical Forest Research Institute (TFRI)

Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

Start a Forest Nursery Business


(260). Start a Forest Nursery Business
Forestry as a sector plays a vital role in the socio-economic and rural development of a country apart from its role in maintaining ecological stability particularly in a developing country like India. Forests are a traditional source of a multitude of products particularly with regard to fuelwood, fodder, small and constructional timber and have sustained large masses of population. The vast potential of forests to generate employment especially in rural areas, thereby contributing to rural incomes and poverty alleviation has remained unutilized.
The country's forests are under tremendous pressure due to the indiscriminate removal of timber, fuelwood, fodder and other forest produce.
Though there are various afforestation and plantation programmes being implemented by the State Forest Departments, Forest based industries, NGOs, etc., availability of quality planting material well in time and in close proximity to areas where afforestation is to be taken up remains a major constraint in taking up large scale afforestation of wastelands, private lands, etc.
Need for raising nurseries for large scale afforestation
The National Forest Policy stipulates that one third geographic area of the country should be brought under forest/tree cover. Keeping the same in focus, the Approach Paper to the X Five Year Plan has targetted to bring 25 percent area under forest/tree cover by the end of the Tenth Plan period and 33 percent by the end of the Eleventh Plan period. It also emphasises on establishment of modern nurseries on a catchment area basis to provide quality planting material. The steady depletion of forest resources and increasing deforestation has brought into focus the realisation that the active participation of the communities is necessary for the success of any forest regeneration programme. It is also well known that village communities would have little incentive to participate unless they benefit directly.
Promotion of decentralised nurseries through credit in the rural areas will lead to easy and timely availability of planting material and in the process lead to creation of employment opportunities and income generation in the rural areas. Forest nurseries will be one of the means for active participation of the communities in future forest regeneration programmes. The proposed large scale afforestation will require establishment of decentralised nurseries through credit support.
The decentralised nurseries can be established by farmers, SHGs, State Forest Development Corporations, forest based industries, NGOs, etc.
Selection of species
The nurseries should plan to produce healthy plants covering timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, non-wood forest produce and even ornamental species having good demand in the locality. Besides this the prevailing agro-climatic conditions in the area should also be taken into consideration while selecting the species.
Nursery Technique
An area of 0.25 ha. has been considered for a viable nursery wherein 1.25 lakh seedlings can be raised. The size of the nursery may be increased according to the borrowers category, capacity and demand for planting material. The nursery should be on a gently sloping land to ensure proper drainage. Site preparation will be done by ploughing and hoeing the land. Initially the nursery will be raised in mother beds and will be pricked out in polypots. It should have water as a perennial source to ensure adequate supply in hot weather and to reduce costs. The shape will be rectangular and would measure 100m x 25 m. Ten seed polybeds would be raised of 10m x 1m i.e. 10 sq m. The number of polybeds required at this stage is at 1 :12 ratio i.e. 12 polybeds for each of the primary/seed polybeds. The 1.25 lakh seedlings will be raised in a total of 120 polybeds of which 1.20 lakh seedlings would be raised in polybags and remaining 5000 will be naked rooted seedlings.
The seedlings will be hardened in the nursery by reducing the water supply over a period of time and exposing them to sunlight over different durations. This would make them capable of facing adverse weather conditions once they are transplanted onto the field. The nurseries are temporary in nature and are of a five year duration. During the summer months, shading may be provided by using polythene sheets or shading nets. Bamboo mats can also be used for providing shade. Protection measures may be taken like fencing the area with barbed wire.
Cost of cultivation
The total cost of raising a nursery with 1.25 lakh seedlings has been estimated at Rs.2.172 lakh for the first year. The capital cost works out to Rs.0.802 lakh to be incurred in the first year. The recurring cost works out to Rs.1.37 lakh. The detailed item wise and year wise unit cost is furnished below assuming a wage rate of Rs.50/- per manday :

You can get more information from Tropical forest Research Institute (TFRI)

Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

Start a Bamboo Cultivation Business


(259). Start a Bamboo Cultivation Business
Diminishing resources and availability of forest wood and conservation concerns have highlighted the need to identify substitutes for traditional timbers.  It is in this context  bamboo assumes special significance. 
Bamboo is a versatile, strong, renewable and environment-friendly material.  It is a member of the grass family,Gramineae and the fastest growing woody plant on earth.  Most bamboo species produce mature fibre in 3 years, sooner than any tree species.  Some bamboos grow up to 1 metre a day, with many reaching culm lengths of 25 metres or more.  Bamboo can be grown quickly and easily, and sustainably harvested in 3 to 5 years cycles.  It grows on marginal and degraded land, elevated ground, along field bunds and river banks.  It adapts to most climatic conditions and soil types, acting as a soil stabilizer, an effective carbon sink and helping to counter the greenhouse effect.
In many areas, bamboo resources have dwindled due to overexploitation and poor management.  This issue needs to be addressed through well-organised cultivation, on the lines of homestead, small-holder and plantation-based cultivation.  The role of bamboo in community agroforestry as a means of generating income for the rural poor is very important.
Production of bamboo is only the starting point.  The real benefits accrue from value-added products.  Handicrafts (mats, baskets, tools, toys and utensils) and furniture are established possibilities, produced in finished form or supplied as components to small enterprises for further processing (for example, supply of mats for production of bamboo mat board).  There are emerging industrial and large-scale applications too in the manufacture of wood substitutes and composites, energy, charcol and activated carbon.  Building and structural components represent vast possibility for enterprise, value addition, income and employment. 
Bamboo and Global Challenges
Bamboo is well placed to address four major global challenges :
Shelter security, through the provision of safe, secure, durable and affordable housing and community buildings.
Livelihood security, through the generation of employment in planting, primary and secondary processing, construction, craft and the manufacture of value-added products.
Ecological security, by conservation of forests through timber substitution, as an efficient carbon sink, and as an alternative to non-biodegradable and high-embodied energy materials such as plastics and metals.
Food security through bamboo-based agro-forestry systems, by maintaining the fertility of adjoining agricultural lands, and as a direct food source – example,edible bamboo shoots.
Planning Commission's Focus on Bamboo
Bamboo, traditionally considered as the "poor man's timber" in India, is under consideration as a major export item by the Indian Government for a global market valued at Rs.500 billion (US$ 11.9 billion) and producing as much as 20 million tonnes of varied products a year from China alone.
India almost 20 years behind China in commercial production, produces only 3 million tonnes a year.  The government has lately come to regard bamboo as an easily manageable export item that provides high yields, has lots of uses and has the potential to provide employment for millions, and thus stem rural workers flight to India's teeming cities.
Between them, India, China and Myanmar have 19.8 million hectares of bamboo reserves – 80 percent of the world's bamboo forests.  Out of this India's share is 45 percent, with nearly 125 different species of the plant, but only 4 per cent of its global market.  The government would like to see its bamboo industry, concentrated in the northeast of the country, take 27 percent of the world market by 2015.  By that time, the market is expected to be Rs.950 billion. 
India's aspirations are ambitious indeed.  The government hopes to create 8 million jobs in the bamboo industry, lifting 5 million families out of poverty and earning Rs.160 billion in revenues by the end of its Tenth Plan in 2007.  The government also hopes to slow the flight of rural workers to urban areas, a major problem.  Job losses and low pay for day workers in national forests affect large populations, where the government forestry departments manage over 9.61 million hectares of mostly natural bamboo stands.
In this backdrop the Planning Commission of India had launched the National Mission on Bamboo Technology and Trade Development.  The objectives of this Mission were to launch several initiatives to place bamboo as a key species and research in the developmental agenda.  The principal objectives are :-
To use Bamboo as a means to reclaim degraded land, conserve soil, improve environment, carry out drought proofing.  Bamboo plantation could be an important ingredient in Greening India Programme aiming at raising of the forest cover to 25% by 2007 and 33% by 2012;
To expand area under Bamboo plantation by 2 million ha. in the Tenth Plan – (1 million ha. in forest areas and 1 million ha. in areas outside forests) and overall 6 M.ha.  in the Tenth and Eleventh Plan;
To improve, yield and stabilize the existing bamboo plantation; 
To diversify, modernize and expand the bamboo based industries and handicrafts by application of modern technology and provide policy and financial support;
To use Bamboo development as an instrument of poverty alleviation and employment generation particularly in rural sector;
The Planning Commission,Govt.of India took note of the market survey carried out by the Cane & Bamboo Technology Centre (CBTC), Guwahati and have accordingly focused on the following :
Bamboo as food (Bamboo Shoots);
Bamboo as a wood substitute (Bamboo Plywood, Bamboo Flooring, Bamboo Pulp, Bamboo Furniture, Bamboo as a building and construction material, Bamboo Housing, Bamboo in tiny and Cottage Industries, Bamboo Mats Industry etc.)
Among the key initiatives launched by the National Mission on Bamboo Technology and Trade Development is "Manpower Development and Training".  Human Resource Development implies upgradation of skills of craftspersons as well as growth of entrepreneurship.

Bamboo Cultivation practices in India
Occurrence: Bamboo belongs to the grass species and hence forms part of the  same family of flowering plants viz. Gramineae to which human beings’ most important staple food plants,  rice and wheat belong. Various estimates limit bamboos to about 1250 species under 75 genera which  are thought to have made its first appearance about 200 million years ago. The plant now occurs in the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones of all  regions except Europe and Western Asia. Recent findings have revealed that bamboo was prevalent in Europe some 3 million years ago but vanished sometime during the last ice age.In India the Rigveda has  mentioned bamboo and hence it must be in use for 4000 years.
Bamboos in India: India is blessed with very rich bamboo resources. With about 22 genera and 136 species, it is one of the largest resources of bamboos, next only to China with 26 genera ad 300 species. The areas particularly rich in bamboo are  the North Eastern States, the Western Ghats, Chattisgarh,M.P. and Andaman Nicobar Islands. The important genera are Arundinaria,  Bambusa,   Cephalostachyum,    Dendrochalamus,       Dinochloa,    Gigantochloa,  Melocanna,   Ochlandra, Oxytenanhthera, Phyllostachys, Pseudostachyum etc.  Of nearly 136 species, at present only about 10 are being commercially exploited today. These are: Bambusa arundinacea, B.affinis, B.balcooa, B.tulda, Dendrocalamus strictus, D.hamiltoni,D.asper, Oxytenanthera stocksii and O.travancorica.  Bamboo production in North Eastern India on commercial lines would be an excellent tool for poverty alleviation and employment generation.
Growth and biomass: Bamboo has two main growth forms due to different types of rhizomes: the leptomorph type with single stem, (monopodial) mainly in temperate region and the pachymorph type as dense clump  stands, (sympodial) mainly in the warm regions. In India majority of bamboos are clump type e.g. Dendrocalamus and Bambusa. However in the north eastern regions, some non clump forming species are present, e.g. Melocanna baccifera with creeping rhizomes.
Bamboo, being a grass produces only one stem without any later secondary growth in height and diameter, as most trees do. Its full length of 15-20 mts,( up to 40 mts in Dendrocalamus giganteus, the largest bamboo species ) is attained within a period of 3-4 months. Thereafter,only branch development continues.Thus, bamboo, being very fast in growth produces an  enormous amount of biomass within a very short time. It is estimated that in 35 years, a bamboo plant can produce up to 15 km of usable pole of 30 cm diameter. Its light weight , high elasticity and rupture make bamboo an ideal material for housing construction  in areas prone to natural calamities such as earthquakes and hurricanes. The tensile strength of bamboo is greater than steel. Such growth has resulted in high expectations in the world especially to store CO2 and to produce larger amount of material and energy. However there is a limitation. Whereas fast growing trees like Eucalyptus, Acacia, Albizzia and Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) produce their biomass continuously for many decades, a bamboo ceases leafy growth after its stem elongation within 3-4 months. The new biomass comes  only in the next year when new shoots (culms) are produced. Commercially important species usually mature in 4-5 years and thereafter harvesting is possible every alternate years. Most of the bamboos have hollow stems, except few which are almost solid viz. D. strictus and B. affinis.
Yield and Harvesting: The annual yield in tonnes/ ha depends on the environment as well as the species. It is generally 3-4 tons/ha as understory in forest and 5-12 tons/ ha from plantations. In the drier parts of India,  well managed and technology based D.strictus plantations give yield of 10 tons/ha.  Melocanna bambusoides in moist Bangladesh has produce 10-13 t/ha yield.  Well managed monoculture bamboo plantations in China yield up to 50 ton per/ha/year. It is estimated that almost 25% of the biomass in the tropics and 20% in the  subtropics, come from bamboo.
Cultivation: Bamboos are generally propagated vegetatively, although they are best raised through seeds. Seedlings are raised in nursery beds and allowed to develop for a year in poly pots after which they are transplanted in the field. As bamboo seeds are rarely available, they are propagated through rhizomes or culm cuttings. In rhizome planting,  one year old culms with roots are dug up, cut to about a metre high and planted during rainy seasons. Vegetative propagation of bamboos is an age old method and is practised everywhere. While planting the rhizomes, the workers should take extra care not to injure the junction of the culm and the rhizome. Irrigation is necessary after planting.
Projects approved/ sanctioned
Today thousands of hectares  of forest land are being planted with bamboo by Forest Development Corporations and Forest Departments in all Indian States. NABARD in 2003 sanctioned a very big bamboo plantation project to Andhra Pradesh Forest Development Corporation for development of degraded forest lands.In 2004 it sanctioned 2 bamboo plantation projects for production of pulpwood in Assam for development of non-forest wastelands. International agencies like INBAR is engaged in promoting bamboo plantation and bamboo industrial projects in many Indian states.
Bamboo flowering: Most bamboos flower only once in their lifetime, and die soon after. Bamboo flowering is a mystery to scientists. Probably they have an in built alarm clock set to go off at a particular time with all populations of a species raised from a single seed source flowering  simultaneously no matter where situated. Melocanna flowered in 1961 simultaneously in Assam and Dehradun, 2000 kms apart. The flowering cycle generally varies from 7-120 years and in some the interval is 3 years and a few may even flower annually. Some bamboos however have never been observed to flower e.g. (B.vulgaris).B. nutans having the longest flowering cycle of 120 years need promotion for planting.
Opportunities: Demand- Supply scenario
India’s bamboo based industries are likely to make a quantum jump if proper policies are put in place and implementation procedures are streamlined. Country’s bamboo economy is expected to grow by over 15% to touch Rs. 260,000 million by2015. The National Mission on Bamboo Technology and Trade Development under the Planning Commission, has estimated that if proper encouragement is given to bamboo cultivation and it’s use, it can replace the projected import of timber to the tune of Rs.300,000 million in the next 20 years i.e 2025.The market size for bamboo plywood is to grow to Rs. 5000 million from Rs. 2000 million in 2001.The country exports about Rs. 1000 million bamboo flooring materials and another flooring materials of Rs. 1000 million is used domestically. It has been estimated that the total market size of bamboo flooring materials will rise to Rs. 19500 million by 2015. The demand for bamboo pulp is expected to grow  to Rs. 20880 million by 2015 from Rs. 1000 million in 2001. The demand for bamboo furniture is expected to grow to Rs.32650 million in 2015 from Rs.3800 million in 2001.By 2015 bamboo scaffolding requirement will rise to Rs.8610 million and for housing purposes the demand will rise to Rs.11630 million. The demand for road construction will rise to Rs.2740 million and for bamboo grids the demand will be Rs. 1000 million.The demand for miscellaneous industry viz, ice cream sticks,fire crackers,bamboo lathis and ladders will rise to Rs. 6000 million by 2004.
Bamboo shoot production
The planning commission has estimated that the Indian bamboo shoots industry has the potential to grow at the rate of 25% per annum and capture a market  worth Rs. 3000 million from the current level of Rs. 48 million.A large potential export market exists for shoots in Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand.The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) has selected 6 species which are most suited for development of bamboo shoot industry in India. These are: Bamboosa balcooa, Dendrocalamus giganteus, D. hamiltonii, D. strictus and Melocanna bambusoides.
China is the largest exporter of bamboo shoots and Phyllostachys pubescens is the common species for shoot production, while in Thailand Dendrocalamus asper is the main species for bamboo shoot production.
Model Bamboo Plantation Scheme For North-East India:
Soil: Most Bamboos are found in sandy loamy to loamy clay soil, derived form river alluvium or underlying rock.  Although bamboos prefer a well drained soil, it is observed to grow even in swampy soils. The soils of Barak valley vary from clay to clay loam to sandy loam and soil reaction is acidic with ph of 4..5 to 6.0 A luxurious growth of bamboo is a common feature  and therefore, the soil and climatic conditions are best suited for cultivation of bamboo. 
Species:   The north east region hosts 58 species belonging  to 10 genera.  The common bamboo in Barak Valley is muli bamboo (Melocanna bambusoides) and jati bamboo (Bambusa tulda).  Presently, the bamboo which procured by the paper mill now proposes to raise the  nursery using the species, Bambusa bambos and  Dendrocalamus strictus.  The reason for preference of these species is non availability of seed of Bambusa tulda.  The required seedlings for the first year programme of 750 acre is already available in the nursery of Cachar Paper Mill.  
Planting :  There are various methods of propagating bamboo through seed and vegetative methods.  The vegetative method is mainly through rhizome.  Although, for early  income generation, rhizome as planting material is desirable, due to non availabililty of rhizome in large quantity for developing as high as 1000 hectare is a constraint.  Therefore, seedlings will be used as planting material in the present project. The planting will be taken up with the onset of monsoon. Pits of 60 cm X 60 cm will be dug and the seedlings will be planted at a spacing of 5m x 4m.  The number of plants per acre is 200.  A provision has been made for casualty replacement  to the extent of 20%.
Intercropping :The gestation period in bamboo plantation is five years. During the first three years, it is possible to cultivate profitable intercrops such as turmeric, ginger, chillies etc. and various shade loving medicinal and aromatic plants.
Fertilisation: The application of fertiliser is most important during transplantation from nursery to main field.  Bamboo is a heavy feeder and therefore, even a rich soil might become depleted after a few years if no fertiliser is added.  The fertilisers although may be applied at any time in a year, it is preferred to apply after harvest and before irrigations.  It should be noted that rhizomes continue to be active (growing)except in the coldest part of the year.  It is therefore proper to apply small quantities of fertilisers round the year thanone/two large doses.  Bamboo responds well to nitrogen and potassium which are found in compost, green manure, wood ash and chemical fertilisers.  Lime is often applied to neutralise soil acidity.
Harvesting and yield :The annual yield of a bamboo clump depends on the number of new culms produced each year.  This in turn is related to the production of young culms.  Culms become mature after two to three years.  To maximise shoot output some shoots must be left each year to develop into leafy young culms.  It is reported that bamboo clump on an average produce 10 culms in a year under good growing conditions. Considering a 30 year of life cycle one clump may produce 300 culms on the whole.
The harvesting can be done from fifth year onwards, however, for commercial production, harvesting will start from sixth year. In the first year of harvest i.e. sixth year, 6 culms per clump will be harvested followed by 7 in seventh year, 8 in eighth year and 9   from ninth year onwards. The culms which are one or two year old are generally left for regeneration. Considering the average weight of a culm at 10 kg, the yield in the first year of harvest is 9.6 tonnes per acre, which will stabilize at 14.4 ton by ninth year.

You can get all the information from Tropical Forest Research Institute (TFRI)

Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

Monday, 26 December 2011

Start a Perfume Business


(258). Start a Perfume  Business
Selling perfumes from home can be a profitable venture if you are aware of the basic things that you need to learn about marketing the product. It is quite easy to sell perfumes from home because it does not require you to do much running around, and you don't even need to invest money in setting up a store. In today's times, when the Internet has made things easy for us, starting up such small ventures and running them successfully isn't that difficult. All you need to look into, is finding effective ways to market the product, so that more and more people are aware of it. In this article on how to sell perfumes from home, we shall delve into the pointers that will help you establish a flourishing business from your own home.

How You can Sell Perfumes from Home

Once you have decided to start the business of selling perfumes from home, you need to consider a few things. These small things can go a long way in increasing the chances that people will like your perfume. Read on to know what are the steps to follow and how they might help.

Choosing a Name
First of all, you need to choose a name that not only sounds cool but also defines the "theme" of your perfume. When you choose a name for your perfume, select one on the basis of the chief fragrance notes in the perfume. For example, if your perfume contains notes of musk or some woody fragrance, which are mostly used in perfumes meant for men, give your perfume a name that sounds like one and appeals to men. On the other hand, you can use feminine names for perfumes that are composed of floral or citrus fragrances. Remember, choosing the perfect name does matter. Just have a look at names of popular perfumes to get an idea.

Bottling the Perfume
Once you have thought of a name for your perfume (which you know is amazing!), you can move on to the next step in the process, which is bottling or putting your perfume into a bottle. The key point here is that the bottle should be such that it makes your potential customer crave for the perfume, literally. Choose one that is unique and is brightly colored but, at the same time, complements the fragrance. Generally, you should choose bluish colors for aqueous notes, pinks and reds for floral notes, greens for citrus notes and blacks and grays for musk-based fragrances. You can always go for bottles that are of a particular shape, for example Nina by Nina Ricci. Get the hint? Also select the look of the label featuring the name of your perfume, which you need to stick to the bottle.

Deciding on a Price
Now that your perfume is neatly packed in a pretty bottle, you need to decide at what price should you sell it to you earn a handsome profit. For that, first calculate the cost incurred in the entire manufacturing and packaging process, including the cost of raw materials, bottles, labels, etc. The general rule is to sell your product for three times the cost incurred. This means that if $12 is all you have spent making and bottling the perfume, then you can sell it for around $36. Sounds profitable, isn't it?

Advertising the Product
Once you have the product ready with you, it is essential that you take steps to advertise it. After all, a product unknown is a product unsold, isn't it? So, what all can you do to let people know that you sell perfumes? One way out is to sell online on sites such as eBay. This way your product grabs the maximum eyeballs and also stands a higher chance of being sold. Once your products become popular, you can even create a website exclusively for the product, where people can visit and place orders. As more and more people get to know about the perfumes you sell, your products will get word of mouth publicity. This will automatically show up as profits in your business.

Thus, you can see that selling homemade products such as perfumes, isn't that difficult at all. Once you are familiar with how to sell perfumes from home, you can expand your business by selling other stuff as well. Hope this article helps you convert your hobby of making perfumes, into a highly profitable business venture.

If you are looking for a lucrative and unique business opportunity, consider learning how to make your own perfume. The process is simple, the supplies are inexpensive and the profit margin is amazing. Great smelling perfume sells well in today’s market, and if you can brand yourself properly you can sell your creations for as much as $125 a bottle. There are many options for marketing your perfume business and many different places you can sell your wares. You can make your own perfume and sell it in your own store or you can sell it in someone else’s spa store or boutique. This is also a great online business idea so you can also easily sell it on the Internet. Oils are readily available and cost as little as 75 cents per vial. All you need to make this business idea a success is a good nose for which scents mix well together and a computer to keep track of your inventory and finances. Then just decide where you will sell your products and you’re all set to start a successful perfume business.
A typical day for a perfume business owner will vary depending on where you sell your products. If you have your own shop, you’ll arrange your products, open the store and wait for the customers to arrive and buy. You’ll spend part of each day working on your marketing plan to attract new customers. If you sell at someone else’s store, you will need to deliver any new creations to the shop. If you sell online, you’ll daily be checking for new orders. Part of your day will be spent packaging and shipping your perfume to complete orders. You will need to spend a portion of your day mixing new creations. Finally, you’ll want to check your inventory on a weekly basis. If you’re running low on oils or other supplies such as bottles, you’ll need to pick some up either at a local supply store or place an order for them on the Internet.

  • Demand for perfume is high, especially in boutiques.
  • Supply costs are low; profit margins are high.
  • If you brand your product line correctly, you can charge high-end prices for your perfumes. 

Online Perfume Business

If you want to start your own online perfume business, you have two options – you can come up with your own line of perfume or you can choose to become an affiliate of a company that sells perfumes.

Selling Perfumes Online

Some people are very much interested in perfumes. Well, who wouldn’t be? You can’t just rush out of the house without putting something on especially if you’re going to see your special someone. There are many online business opportunities today and one is an online perfume business. If you can create different scents and create your own brand name, you’re on your way. You will also need to have your own label on the perfume and of course, you need to design a logo for your business so that your customers will know you better. Once you have your own line of perfumes, you can now create your own site and market your perfume products to the world.

The Options

If you don’t have your own line of perfumes, there is another option for you. You can search for affiliate marketing opportunities. There are lots of opportunities on the web and you can take advantage of them. Since you’re interested in perfumes, you will need to find a company that offers affiliate opportunities. You can use any of the major search engines to look for the affiliate company. As long as you have the passion for this kind of products, you can earn a lot of profits.
Whether you create your own perfume line or you’re just an affiliate, you will need to create a good site. This will serve as your tool in selling the perfumes. It should be a user friendly site and you will need to provide all the details about the perfumes you’re selling. Try to provide photos of the perfumes so that the customers can also see the packaging. Create multiple pages so that you can incorporate as much info as possible. If you have your own line of perfumes, you can include a short video of you introducing yourself and the perfumes that you sell. This is one way to make the customers familiar with you. People buy from those who have earned their confidence and trust so make sure that you establish some connection. That way, you can increase your client base.
Advertising is the key to getting sales. You will need to think of effective ads that can sell your business. There are many ways of selling online. You will need traffic to promote your online store but it you also need to convert them into real customers. Maintaining a site requires time and effort. Manage your site properly and use the right strategies. Soon, your perfumes can become very popular.

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) comprises national and regional associations, whose members include fragrance ingredient and compound manufacturers and suppliers.its website is -

Jardin de France
15, rue des Varennes
71140 Bourbon Lancy
Tél. : +33 (0)3 85 89 90 92
Fax : +33 (0)3 85 89 90 93
Siret : 323 588 269 000 31
TVA intra-communautaire : FR 713 235 882 69