(331). Start a Plant of Activated Carbon Making
Activated carbon is a black solid substance resembling granular or powdered charcoal. It is extremely porous with a large surface area, Activated carbon is produced from organic based materials such as coconut shells, palm-kernel shells wood chips, sawdust, corn cobs, seeds etc. Activated carbon prepared from Bamboo has been found to be the best in terms of surface area and adsorption capacity. Manufacture of activated charcoal is one glaring example of extracting useful product from what was considered wasteful hitherto. Activated charcoal has found use in various industries starting from water filtration to detoxification of body.
Activated carbon can be used for removal of organic chemicals, chlorine, lead, unpleasant tastes and odors in effluent or coloured substances from gas or liquid streams by the mechanism of adsorption and for adoption of gases and vapors, and for purification and decolonization of several products of chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. The product is manufactured in granular and powdered forms. The powdered form is used for purification and decolorization purposes. This project idea considers the production of powdered activated carbon which can be used in the sugar, vegetable oil, alcoholic, beverages, etc. factories in our country.. Adsorption can be classically defined as absorption on the surface of the material due to capillary condensation inside the multitude of pores and active sites available. Modern water purifiers come with activated carbon filter. Activated carbon water is very effective in removing chlorine from water which is cancerous if consumed.
High-grade activated carbon can be obtained from woody material like bamboo having inherent mechanical strength, high carbon and low ash content. Since India is the second largest producers of bamboo, there exists an excellent scope for producing bamboo based high-grade activated carbon if appropriate technology is developed and exploited at commercial level.India, have also made good progress in the field of manufacture of activated charcoal prepared from abundant supply of coconut shells, collected after using the kernel and coconut water.
India has been one of major exporters of activated carbon of late and is expected to do better in the coming years.
Market Potential: The major end users of activated carbon are the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. The demand for powdered activated carbon is closely related to the need for purification and dicolorization of several industrial products. So far all the requirements of activated carbon in the country are met through imports. Between 1984 and 1993, average annual import of activated carbon who about 82 tons. However, annual imports of the product vary considerably. In 1985 import was 336 tons and in 1987 it was only 3 tons. Based on the average annual import, and expected growth rate of the manufacturing sector, the demand for activated carbon was projected to be about 540 tons by the year 1013
Source of raw material: the raw material for the production of activated carbon is charcoal. Sawdust, lignite and other carbonaceous materials can also be used as raw materials. Lignite is available in North Gonder, North Wollo and North Shewa of the Amhara Region.
Process and Technology: The raw material charcoal or lignite should be crushed to the desired size and exposed to high temperature, 800-9000c. It will be allowed to cool and screened to separate extraneous materials associated with the raw material, and then the grading process, according to wize will be carried out. After the combustion process is completed, the product will be grounded to powdered carbon, and then washed to produce washed activated carbon and dried. Finally the finished Product will be packed in plastic bags. About 19 units of machinery and equipment are needed for the production of powdered activated carbon. The main ones are silos for charcoal or lignite charge, conveyors/elevators, crusher, feed hoppers with feeding system, rotary kiln for activation, cooler for activated product, screening machine, grinding machine, acid pumps, slurry pumps, centrifuge, blenders/misers, etc.
|The element carbon exists in three allotropic modifications, amorphous carbon, graphite and diamond, which are employed industrially. The major use of activated carbon is in solution purification, such as the clean up of cane, beet, corn sugar solution and for removal of tastes and odors from water supplies, vegetable and animal fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and pharmaceuticals etc. Looking these uses it can be concluded that there is very good scope for setting up activated carbon unit.|
|Plant capacity: 300 MT/Annum||Plant & machinery: 25 Lakhs|
|Working capital: -||T.C.I: 87 Lakhs|
|Return: 35.00%||Break even: 49.00%|
|Activated carbon is a non graphite form of carbon and is microcrystalline in nature. It is extensively used in various industries as a very good absorbent for odour or colour. A large variety of raw materials are available for the manufacture of activated carbon like rice husk, groundnut husk, coconut shell, saw dust, bagasse, wood and bamboo etc. The activated carbon produced in the country is catering to the need of vanaspati and solvent extraction plant, glucose and sugar industries, water treatment, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, synthetic rayons, electrochemical industries etc. Due to its use in various industries, it has a good demand and annual demand growth is around 15%. So there is good scope for the investment in this sector.|
|Plant capacity: 5 Tons/Day||Plant & machinery: 67 Lakhs|
|Working capital: -||T.C.I: 244 Lakhs|
|Return: 42.00%||Break even: 51.00%|
|Carbon is probably the most widely distributed element in nature. It occurs in two allotropic crystalline forms, viz. Graphite (hexagonal system) and diamond (isomeric system), the former is soft and black where diamond is hard and transparent. Charcoal coke and carbon black classified as amorphous carbon, are considered by same to represent a third form, they are said to be composed of very minute crystals of graphite by others. Carbon is an essential constituent of all vegetable and animal matter in which constituent and other elements in immense variety of oxygen and other elements in immense variety of compounds. Decolorizing carbon is used for removing or improving the colour and flavour of edible materials, such as agar, beer, cider, wines, fruit juice, cocoa butter, dephenolizing effluent gas works liquor, preparation of biological products, recovering iodine from seawater and bromine from brines, gas absorbent carbon is employed for the recovery of gasoline from natural gas. It is very clear that there exists very good scope for this product and it can be exploited easily. It is good field for a new entrepreneur.|
|Plant capacity: 2 Mt/Day||Plant & machinery: 34 Lakhs|
|Working capital: -||T.C.I: 122 Lakhs|
|Return: 44.00%||Break even: 48.00%|
|Carbon is probably the most widely distributed element in nature. Activated carbon from rice husk has been developed & finding wider uses. There is considerable scope in India for the manufacture of activated carbon from rice husk. The major use put by activated carbon is solution purification, such as the clean up of cane, beet and corn sugar solution and for the removal of taste and odours from water suppliers, vegetable and animal fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and pharmaceutical. The recovery of streptomycin represents a typical application of the continuous treatment of liquids. The vapour adsorbent type of activated carbon was first used in military and industrial gas masks. Its use in air conditioning systems to control odours and industrial recovery and control of vapours has been very significant of activated carbon has boost up its market potential existing at present & has much under scope in future. This is very good project.|
|Plant capacity: 2 Ton/Day||Plant & machinery: 41 Lakhs|
|Working capital: -||T.C.I: 183 Lakhs|
|Return: 39.00%||Break even: 43.00%|
|Activated carbon is a amorphous from of carbon which has been treated to produce a highly developed pore structure resulting in a very large internal surface area. It is pore structure which gives the activated carbon its ability to absorb gases and vapours from gaseous phase and dissolved or dispersed substances from liquid phase. Activated carbon can be manufactured from wide variety of raw material such as pinewood, charcoal, coconut shell, rice husk etc. The activated carbon is also used for the purification of air and water, refining of sugar and production of electrodes. The demand is gradually increase with the increase of end users industry. Any new entrepreneur may launch of this unit.|
|Plant capacity: 1.0 Tonnes/Day||Plant & machinery: Rs. 39 Lakhs|
|Working capital: Rs. 29 Lakhs||T.C.I: Rs. 108 Lakhs|
|Return: 47.21%||Break even: 46.53%|
Activated Carbon From Saw Dust
|Carbon is probably the most widely distributed element in nature. The term activated carbon, active carbon or active charcoal is usually applied to amorphous carbons processing higher absorption capacities that wood or animal charcoal. Industrial activated carbons in the form of pellets, granules or fine powder. And with many industrial application are new in the market under different trade-names. At present, in India there are about 21 to 22 units in which four units are in the state of Gujarat. There exists very good scope for this product and it can be exploited easily. There is also huge demand of activated carbon in export potential for the high quality activated carbon. The new entrepreneur can enter in this project.|