Saturday, 23 June 2012

Start a Dye & Pigment Manufacturing Plant

(337). Start a Dye & Pigment Manufacturing Plant
Dyes and pigments are substances that impart color to a material. The term colorant is often used for both dyes (also called dyestuffs) and pigments. The major difference between dyes and pigments is solubility (the tendency to dissolve in a liquid, especially water). Dyes are usually solubler can be made to be solublen water. Once a dye is dissolved in water, the material to be dyed can be immersed in the dye solution. As the material soaks up the dye and dries, it develops a color. 

A dye which is a colored substance has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. On the other hand, pigment is a coloring matter, usually in the form of an insoluble powder that is mixed with oil, water, etc. to make paint. The pigment lays on the surface and becomes part of the dry film. Dyes like acid dye, basic dye, mordant dye, vat dyes, reactive dyes etc are all used in textile industry for different purposes.

The dyestuffs industry has nearly 1000 units manufacturing dyes, dyestuffs and pigments with a capacity to produce 75,000 to 80,000 tonnes per annum of textile dyes and organic pigments. The capacity for production of pigments is estimated to be 40,000 tpa, half of which is in the small scale sector.  The number of units is the largest in a single country worldwide and is a case of too little being produced by too many. In this large spread of units, there are only about 146 units in the organized sector with an installed capacity of 58,700 tpa, covering over 75% of the total installed capacity in the country.  Of these, 40 are fairly large in size. In terms of production, the organized sector contributes about two-thirds.
The total market is estimated at over Rs 50 billion, of which, the market for organic pigments is estimated at Rs 3 billion. The market in quantitative terms is made up of basic dyes, azo acid and direct dyes; disperse dyes, fast colour bases, reactive dyes, sulphur dyes, vat dyes, organic pigments, naphthols, optical brightners and others. Nearly 80,000 tonnes of the materials are imported and a quarter of the domestic production is exported annually. The overall market is expanding at around 6.5% as of now.  The dye markets are mostly dominated by reactive and disperse dyes. The demand for reactive and disperse dyes is expected to grow in future as these two dyes are dominant in all the regions.
Globally, China, Taiwan, India, Japan, Korea and Pakistan are the major dyestuff producing countries in the Industry. In terms of market share, Europe is the leading producer due to its allegiance towards specialty products and the countries in Europe have remained the largest players owing to specialty products.
The industry has a blend of Indian enterprise and the MILLIONCs existing side by side. Atul Products, Sudarshan Chemical Industries, Jaysynth Dyechem, Mardia Chemicals and several others have secured a niche in the market place among the Indian enterprises. The million companies have also come to play a dominant role such as IDI (formerly ICI), Ciba Speciality Chemicals (India), Clariant India.
The industry experts are of the view that those capable of consolidation and achieving critical mass have the inherent strength to win. The companies with global reach and backed by technology with resources to strengthen R&D,  are expected to march ahead. Others are likely to fade away as market demands ever new solutions.
India exports mainly to US, Europe and the far East. Exports from India make for 4% to 5% of global trade in dyes and pigments. The comparative advantage of cheap labour, intelligent manpower, well qualified pool of scientists and grasp of technology are expected to open up new vistas for the industry on the export front. World demand for dyes and organic pigments is forecast to grow at around 6.5%.
The future of dye and dyestuff, a part of chemical industry has good prospects in the coming years owing to its high demand.The growth of dye sector in the future will continues to depend on the performance of end user industries like paints, textiles, printing inks, paper, plastics and foodstuffs. The changing customer preferences, boom and expansion of infrastructure in India will create new market opportunities for the dye industry.

Types of Dyes
To classify dyes into any particular category is really an uphill task, for there are plethora of dyes that have evolved over the years with its typical chemical structures, and commercial names. Typically a dye-formulation is supposed to have approximately 10-80% pure dyestuff. Generally it is has been observed that for dyestuffs that are delivered in powder form, a higher value is typically obtainable. While a lower value is obtained for the liquid formulations.

Here we will try to give a general view of the types of dyes that can be categorized under a few major classes.

 Chemical classification of the Dyes

According to a system of chemical classification, dyes can be divided according to the nature of their Chromophore:

Category:Acridine dyes, derivatives of acridine >C=N-and>C=CTextiles, leather
Category:Anthraquinone dyes, derivatives of anthraquinone >C=O and>C=CTextiles
Category:Arylmethane dyes
  • Diarylmethane dyes, based on diphenyl methane
  • Triarylmethane dyes, based on triphenyl methane
Category:Azo dyes, based on a -N=N- azo structure
Category:Cyanine dyes, derivatives of phthalocyanine
Category:Diazonium dyes, based on diazonium salts
Category:Nitro dyes, based on the -NO2 nitro functional group
Category:Nitroso dyes, are based on a -N=O nitroso functional
Category:Phthalocyanine dyes, derivatives of phthalocyanine >C=NPaper
Category:Quinone-imine dyes, derivatives of quinoneWool and paper
Category:Azin dyes
  • Eurhodin dyes
  • Safranin dyes, derivatives of safranin -C-N=C- -C-N-C
Leather and textile
Category:Xanthene dyes, derived from xanthene -O-C6H4-0Cotton, Silk and Wool
Category:Indophenol dyes, derivatives of indophenol >C=N-and>C=OColour photography
Category:Oxazin dyes, derivatives of oxazin -C-N=C =C-O-C=Calico printing
Category:Oxazone dyes, derivatives of oxazone
Category:Thiazin dyes, derivatives of thiazin
Category:Thiazole dyes, derivatives of thiazole >C=N-and-S-0=Intermediate
Category:Fluorene dyes, derivatives of fluorene
Category:Rhodamine dyes, derivatives of rhodamine
Category:Pyronin dyes

Dyes according to the nuclear structure

Though not very popular but dyes can be categorized into types by using this method of classification:
  • Cationic Dyes
  • Anionic Dyes
Industrial Classification of the Dyes

As globally majority of the dyestuff is primarily consumed by the textile industry, So at this level a classification can be done according to their performances in the dyeing processes. Worldwide around 60% of the dyestuffs are based on azo dyes that gets consumed by in the textile finishing process. Major classes of dyes in textile finishing is given here.

Major Dye classes and the substrates:
  • Acid
  • Azoic
  • Basic
  • Direct
  • Disperse
  • Reactive
  • Solvent
  • Sulphur
  • Vat
  • Mordant
Classification based on the source of materials

A very common classification of the dyestuff is based on the source from which it is made. Accordingly the classification could be:
  • Natural Dyes
  • Synthetic Dyes
Other important dyes

A number of other classes have also been established, based among others on application, that includes the following:

Leather Dyes - Used for leather.

Oxidation Dyes - Used mainly for hair.

Optical Brighteners - Used primarily for textile fibers and paper.

Solvent Dyes - For application in wood staining and production of coloured lacquers, solvent inks, waxes and colouring oils etc.

Fluorescent Dyes - A very innovative dye. Used for application in sports good etc.

Fuel Dyes - As the name suggests it is used in fuels.

Smoke Dyes - Used in military activities.

Sublimation Dyes - For application in textile printing.

Inkjet Dyes - Writing industry including the inkjet printers.

Leuco Dyes - Has a wide variety of applications including electronic industries and papers.


What is Pigment
Pigments are generally coloured, organic or inorganic solid powder, and usually are insoluble. They are not affected physically or chemically in the substrate in which they are incorporated. Pigments can give a full range of colours. Pigments have a variety of applications that includes plastics, ink, and coating applications.

Features of the Pigments

The pigments are versatile coloring agents that comes with all round features to give credence to its suitability in a variety of mediums. Some of the striking features are given here:
  • Excellent light and weather fastness
  • A good baking stability that makes them suitable for automotive and other industrial paints
  • High tinting strength
  • Good over spray fastness when applied in paints
  • Gives heat stability of around 300° C in the case of Polyolefins Plastics
  • Excellent solvent resistance properties
  • Easily dispersible
  • Consistency and uniqueness of shades
Factors that go in selecting the right Pigment

While choosing a pigment depends on application, following broad factors can be taken as a guide:
  • Hiding efficiency
  • Colour
  • pH value
  • Bulking value
  • Density
  • Refractive index
  • Hardness
  • Oil absorption
The following table gives a good comparison among various classes of Pigments

Comparison of Pigment Families

Organic Pigments
Organic Pigments
OpacityUsually highTranslucent to TransportVery Transparent
Colour StrengthLow to moderateConsiderably stronger than Inorganic PigmentsStrongest
DispersabilityUsually Good: Often AbrasiveAdequatePoor to goodNot required; Soluble
Heat ResistantUsually 5000 F; Some 2000 C1500 C-3000 C2000 C- 3000 C2500 C- 3500 C
Migration resistanceExcellentModerate -GoodGood - OutstandingVery Poor - good
Light Fastness (on a Blue scale6 to 82 to 66 to 82 to 7
Weather resistanceOutstanding for selectionInsufficientExcellent for SelectionGood for selection

For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken.
Pigments are used for coloring paintinkplasticfabriccosmeticsfood and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder. This powder is added to a vehicle (or binder), a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.
The worldwide market for inorganic, organic and special pigments had a total volume of around 7.4 million tons in 2006. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by Europe and North America. In 2006, a turnover of 17.6 billion US$ (13 billion euro) was reached mostly in Europe, followed by North America and Asia.[1] The global demand on pigments was roughly US$ 20.5 billion in 2009, around 1.5-2% up from the previous year. It is predicted to increase in a stable growth rate in the coming years. The worldwide sales are said to increase up to US$ 24.5 billion in 2015, and reach US$ 27.5 billion in 2018.[2]
A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in the vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resulting in a solution). The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. A colorant can be both a pigment and a dye depending on the vehicle it is used in. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment.

What is the Dye & Pigment Manufacturing Industry?

This industry comprises companies primarily engaged in manufacturing synthetic organic and inorganic dyes and pigments, such as lakes and toners (except electrostatic and photographic). As such the industry is involved in the production of various pigments and dyes including color, lead, chrome, metallic, and zinc based pigments as well as disperse, vat, and direct dyes. A chemical intermediate product, these various pigment and dyes are used to impart color to numerous products.
Industry Products
Inorganic dyes and pigmentsSynthetic organic dyes and pigments
Industry Activities
Inorganic dyeInorganic pigmentSynthetic organic dyeSynthetic pigment
Plant Manufacture
Industrial Asset Management, LLC
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Ewing, New Jersey 08638 USA
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Fax: +1-609-936-9102


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  4. Being an employee with Alliance Organics it feels pleasure to announce that Alliance Organics has become one of the renowned dyestuffs manufacturer and major players in terms of market share for exporting high quality dyestuffs, reactive dyes, inorganic pigments, organic pigments and food colors across a variety of countries like USA, China, Indonesia, Russia and Brazil.