Friday, 17 February 2012

Start a Carpet Manufacturing Business.


(281). Start a Carpet Manufacturing Business.

Carpet means one type of thick fabric equipped with extra yarn on its surface-fabric, which is termed as 'Pile'. This pile is produced by the support of warp yarn or support of weft yarn. The term was also used for table and wall coverings.

Carpets are used in households, offices, hotels, functions, occasions, public gatherings and many more places to list. Apart from beautifying the surroundings, they are prominently used to pronounce the theme. To satisfy an immensely varied target market, there exists a huge range of carpets encircling all kinds of classifications in carpet manufacturing. Be it according to type of fabrics or according to design or weaving techniques, carpets are available in various ranges to fulfill the market demands.
Most commonly used fibers to make carpets are wool (warm and durable), silk (most exotic), jute, some synthetic fibers like nylon, polyester, olefin, and acrylic, out of which polyester is durable of all. Bamboo carpets and Coir carpets form a different range of eco-friendly carpets.

Carpet Industry
Spread widely across the world, the extent of the carpet industry depends on the availability of raw materials, presence of skilled weavers, presence of a tradition of weaving art, etc. Every nation takes on the art differently and has a special taste, preference, designs, quality, and colors imparted to it, which makes a finished rug, a unique product specific to the region.
In vogue since ages, carpets have been one of the prized possessions. At its peak during the Mughal period, the carpets got the patronage of the kings and the noblemen. The hand-knotted and weaving forms flourished and manifested themselves in varied forms. Earlier, the admirers of the art form were Kings and aristocrats but after the dawn of modernism, the carpets soon entered the houses of the commonality and business enterprises.

Millions of weavers throughout the world, working day and night have perfected the art of carpet making. The carpet industry talents, mostly originating from tribal art forms, are found in the remote parts where modernism has not hit yet. In India, Jammu and Kashmir’s name has been synonymous with carpet weaving. Nevertheless, there are millions of artisans also working this art to the perfection in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu, and Kashmir etc.

Worst hit with the power loom in place when weavers were replaced by automatic machines the conditions of the weavers of the carpet industry has worsened and millions were unemployed. Living below poverty line, the weavers had to switch to other professions to earn their living.
Despite stringent measures by the Government, the carpet industry was saddled by the recent global economic slump. Fortunately, several NGOs coming up for the welfare of the weavers have slowed down the curve of the carpet industry profit-chart. In spite of allocation of funds by the central government in the Five Year Plans, there has been no significant optimism in the lifestyle of the carpet weavers. Weavers have always served and yet produced one of the best forms of aesthetic beauty, which are specimens of mesmerism. Still, the welfare of these artisans and millions of weavers living below poverty line is at standstill and struggle for their livelihood.
The need of the hour is to stand up for the welfare of the depressed carpet weavers of the industry who are perpetually affected due to power looms. We can contribute our part to save by buying such fine-looking Hand Knotted Carpet products. Patronizing such floor coverings would help preserve the tradition, exquisite designs and so much more, woven by the Indian carpet weavers.

Carpet Industry in India
This present carpet industry in India took birth because of the Mughal Dynasty. They introduced Persian and Turkish weavers in the country for the production of carpets for their palaces. On the downfall of this dynasty, the practice of carpet weaving shook badly. However, it picked up the momentum in the form of independent units during post-British period. Now the industry is glowing with its utmost glory from the states of Rajasthan, Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh.
Today, carpet exports have continued to show a steep rise. According to an article by Indian Brand Equity Foundation, India accounts for 61 per cent of the global loom age, 22 per cent of the global spindle age, 12 per cent of the world's production of textile fibers & yarn and 25 per cent share in the total world trade of cotton yarn. Exports of carpets have increased from US$ 654.32 million in 2004-05 to US$ 930.69 million in 2006-07, showing a growth rate of 42.23 per cent. During April-October 2007, carpet exports totalled US$ 404.74 million. This makes India the world leader in carpet exports with 36 per cent of the global market share.
Indian carpets are famous and known worldwide for its magnificent designs and heart-winning workmanship. Hand-knotted woollen carpets, tufted woollen carpets, chain stitch rugs, pure silk carpets, staple/synthetic carpets, handmade woollen durries are some of the floor covering types for which there is a huge market demand in the European and American market.
The Indian carpet industry is very vibrant and has considerable potential for growth. However, lesser innovation techniques, outdated technology, labour law issues and lack of infrastructural facilities in some of the rural areas are major barriers that make this industry less competent as compared to other carpet supplying countries.
Owing to these factors, the Indian government has established Carpet Export Promotion Council of India (CEPC) to promote the exports of hand knotted carpets and other floor coverings. It provides the necessary assistance to the Indian exporters, identifies the markets, provides financial and marketing assistance, sponsors participation in fairs and exhibitions and also conducts publicity abroad.
Carpet Industry in India :-

Manufacturing Process
Handmade Carpets
Hand-made carpets are technically very different from machine-made carpets. As it is quite relevant from their names, hand-made carpets are woven by hands while machine-made carpets undergo treatments by various machines.
Hand-made carpets are traditionally more expensive than those made by machines. Though there are several carpet-making methods, including braiding, hand tying (or hand knotting), hooking, shearing and tufting, the most common of these are braiding and hand knotting.
Braided carpets are done by connecting or tying strips of fabrics together. Hand tying or hand-knotting are usually done on rugs. Countries that are known to produce beautifully crafted hand-knotted rugs include Spain, Portugal, India, Pakistan, Turkey, Afghanistan and Japan (among others). Hand-knotted rugs are descendants of Oriental Rugs and can be made in any shape, size, coloured or design
The process that creates a hand-made/hand-knotted carpet can be explained as under:
Wool sorting & Washing
Wool is either imported or is bought from nearby markets and is carefully sorted to pick out unwanted particles. Wool often carries dust, grease which is removed by washing it thoroughly and is then sun dried for two-three days.
The Tibetan wool has a strong good fibre length is imported in scoured form, good lustre and a high resilient value. The New Zealand wool is of 36 micron, 100 mm barb length and is identified as type 128. British wool meeting regulatory standards have also started being available in the market.
carpet and rug pedia
The carding process allows the fibre stand to flow smoothly when spinning. This is also the stage for blending different wools and to ascertain the ratio of different origins. Traditionally, carding was performed by hand and machine carding was introduced when the industry grew. However hand carded product is still available if a customer so desires.
carpet and rug pedia
The carded wool is spun into yarn by using a charkha or a spinning wheel. The thickness of the yarn depends on the quality of the carpet and generally a 3 ply yarn is used.
carpet and rug pedia
The traditional pot dyeing method has been largely replaced by machine dyeing in closed  Chambers. Dyes containing harmful substances such as AZO are banned and dye-stuffs from  renowned international manufacturers are used. These dyes have a high degree of fastness. Depending on the weather, the dyed yarn has to be dried in the sunlight for one to three days. Pot  dyeing and vegetable (natural) dyeing are still being used by some manufacturers.
carpet and rug pedia

Carpet Knotting
Knotting is an art. Weavers who weave on a regular basis have a very good speed in knotting. They tend to develop this speed over a span of time. One or more weavers work on a loom depending on the size of the carpet. Each weaver makes individual knots row after row. The designs are chartered out on a graph and a map reader or another weaver instructs the graphic designs to the ones knotting the carpet. The dyed yarn is made into balls and scissors, iron rod, levers, comb beaters are used as tools.
carpet and rug pedia
The finished carpet is taken off from the loom and the designs & patterns are trimmed by scissors.
carpet and rug pedia
Washing and Drying
The trimmed carpet is washed with the fresh water & chemicals. The washed carpet is dried in the sunlight up to four or five days.
carpet and rug pedia
Final Touches
The dried carpets are given final touches by re-trimming and stretching, where ever necessary. The purpose is to bring the fabric woven in level at the surface.
carpet and rug pedia

All washed carpets are rolled and wrapped in polythene sheet and is sealed at each end. Again, it is wrapped in Hessian cloth and sewn. Generally, around 14m2 are packed in each bale.
carpet and rug pedia
Machine Made Carpet
Machine-made carpets are tufted, woven, knitted, flocked or needle-punched. Most commonly tufting is used for machine-made carpets. Tufted carpets are made on machines where the yarn is stitched through a pre-constructed backing to form a loop or a tuft. To hold the loops in place, the back side of the carpet is coated with latex.
Tufting is the most inexpensive and fastest ways to manufacture a rug. Weavers can also control the tuft size making it possible to create carpets with varying patterns or surface textures.
There are three kinds of woven carpets: Velvet, Wilton and Axminster. Velvet is the least complicated of construction methods. Velvet carpets usually come in one solid coloured and a tweed effect may be noticed. Wilton carpets are more intricate. These are manufactured by using a Jacquard loom which can hold up to six different coloured of yarns. The Axminster method of weaving carpets produces the most elaborate designs with a wide variety of coloured.
• Knitted carpets are faster to make. In knitting, several sets of needles create loops and these are stitched together before the backing is applied. Knitted carpets come in solid or tweed and the pile may be of the same size or of varying heights.
• Flocked carpets are similar to Velvet carpets in appearance. They have a dense cut pile of short fibres that are imbedded into an adhesive-coated backing.
• Needle-punching is similar to hand-hooking. Formerly used for indoor-outdoor carpets, this process is now being used for carpets that are only meant to be placed indoors as well. In needle-punching, fibres are locked into a packing by using hooked needles, which are further compressed.
 The Manufacturing Process
The process of manufacturing tufted carpets can be explained in the following steps:
Step 1: Preparing the yarn
• First, the synthetic yarns arrive at the carpet manufacturer either in staple fibre form or in bulk continuous filament form
• The staple fibres, which are an average of 7 inches (18 cm) long are generally loose and are individual strands that arrive in bales. Several bales are blended together into one batch in a hopper.
• Then, these strands are lubricated and are spun into long, loose ropes called slivers by a carding machine. The slivers are then pulled, straightened, and spun into single yarn that is wound onto spools.
• Both the single-ply staple fibres (now spun into filament) and the bulk continuous filament is then twisted together to form thicker two-ply yarn suitable for tufting.
• The yarns are then steamed to bulk them, and then heated to 270-280°F (132-138°C). This heat setting causes the yarn to maintain its shape by fixing its twist. After cooling, these yarns are wound onto tubes and transported to the tufting machines.