Friday, 14 October 2011

Start a Denim Washing Plant

(114). Start a Denim Washing Plant

Denim is a rugged twill textile , in which the weft passes under the two or more warp yarns, producing the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the revere of the fabric.

Characteristics of denim fabric:

·         Warp yarns are colored (usually with indigo, vat, blue or sulphur black );
·         Structure : right hand or left hand twill, i.e. z/s-twill of 2/1 or 3/1construction;
·         Usually made of cotton yarns of coarser count (7s, 10s, 14s, 16s, etc)
·         Coarser cloth ( weight lies between 6-14 oz/sq.yds ) and used for pant and warm jackets;
·         Rotor yarn are usually used.

Denim washing Process

Denim washing is aesthetic finish given to denim fabric to enhance the demand and to provide strength. Dry denim as opposed to washed denim is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production.Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time fabric will fade in a manner similar to that which artificially distressed denim attempts to replicate . With dry denim however such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears jeans and the activities of their daily life. This creates what many fell to be more natural, unique look than pre distressed denim.
It is a new technology by which out look , size , comfort ability and fashion of a garment are changed or modified . This technology was first appeared in Bangladesh in 1988.Before that washing was carried out only in Hong Kong and Singapore , i.e. after sewing garments were sent to abroad for washing and again brought here back for finishing , tagging and packing . As a result , extra overhead cost ( freight , washing charge, time consumptions ) was drawn in.

Objects of garments washing:

·     To develop softness in garments : Size materials applied during manufacturing present in the fabric are removed which enhances soft hand feel . Additional softness may be attained by using softener .
·   To introduce fading effect : Dyes or pigments are present in the fabric , used during coloration, are washed out locally or partially which result fading or worn out effects in the garments.
·  To create new fashion : Washing Process of garments bring different outlook ( faded, color tinted etc ) thus creating new fashion for the new generation especially for teenagers.
·   To satisfy the consumer :As the contraction or extraction (shrinkage ) occur due to washing , the wearer can use the garments after purchase satisfactory

Advantages of garments washing:
Removal of starch or size materials make the fabric soft hand feel.
The following advantages are obtained could be gained from the garments washing—
  • Softness could be increased by the addition of softener just at the last stage of washing.
  • Dirt, spots, impurities, gum etc, if accumulated in the garments during manufacturing could  be removed.
  • During washing shrinkage may takes place, therefore after washing there is no possibility to create such problem.
  • Washed garments could be worn directly after purchase .
  • Faded or worn out effect could introduced to the garments which creates new fashion
  • Similar outlook can be obtained by different washing techniques.
  • Comparatively lower capital is required to set up a washing plant.
  • Lower land space and least manpower cost are required to run a washing plant.


    In the process a strong oxidative bleaching agent like sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4 is added during the washing with or without stone addition. Discoloration produced is usually more apparent depending on strength on the bleach liquor quality, temperature and treatment time. It is preferable to have strong bleach with short treatment time.
    Care should be taken for the bleached goods so that they should be adequately antichlored or after washed with peroxide to minimize yellowing. Materials should be carefully stored before processing for color uniformity
    It is environmentally friendly wash. It involves the application of organic enzymes that eat away at the fabric, i.e. the cellulose. When the desired color is achieved, the enzyme can be stopped by changing the alkalinity of the bath or its temperature. Post treatment includes final ringing and softening cycle. The effects produced by cellulose enzyme are :—-
    1.   Use of cellulose making the seams, hems, and pockets more noticeable;
    2.    Salt paper effect is color contrast effect.
    3.    Faded garment washed with acid cellulose enzyme provides less color contrast in proportion to garment washed neutral cellulose enzymes.Garment load size of the m/c is 35-40 jeans per m/c and it cannot be overloaded.


    It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for localized bleaching resulting in a non uniform sharp blue/white contrast. In this wash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by optical brightening. The advantage of this process is that it saves water as addition of water is not required.
    It consists of soaking pumice stones with chlorine and using their abrasive power to bleach jeans into sharp contrasts. Also known as moon, fog, marble, ice and frosted.

    STONE WASH      

    In the process of stone washing, freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumice stone or volcanic rock to achieve a soft hand and desirable look. Variations in compositions, hardness, size shape and porosity make these stone multifunctional. The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment. Pumice stone give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper, removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.
    These are silica-rich, viscous, high temp. melt product of explosive eruption during ascent and expulsion of the earth. These are light weight , highly porous , rocky substances which will float on water . Major pumice stones supplier countries are USA, Turkey, Italy, Iceland , New Zealand, Japan , Indonesia and Philippines. This is one of the important components in the of stone washed apparels. It is used to abrade the surface of the fabric to obtain a surface pattern effect with colour contrast and softer hand. Since the degree of abrasion may varies in different parts of a garments such as trouser leg, button slay and seaming parts, a number of neutral patterns can be formed.The degree of wash effect depends on stone size , stone ratio , liquor ratio , duration of treatment , amount of garments loaded , garments GSM, etc. Stone size varies from 1 cm diameter to 7 cm . But other washes like sand wash , micro wash, micro sand wash are now referring to use very small size pumice stones .

    Sand blasting

    Jeans wear treatment that removes color from certain areas, either all over or placed and gives the garment additional softness. Sand is actually shot at the garment with a powerful spray gun. Recent technology has introduced “automatic” sandblasting, in which the jeans hang and rotate continuously.
    1.   It is purely mechanical process, not using in chemicals.
    2.    It is a water free process therefore no drying required.
    3.    Varity of distressed or abraded looks possible.
    4.    Any number of designs could be created by special techniques.
    It is a process applied on denim fabric garments to get heavy faddy effects on particular points. Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular, powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of garment surface to be treated to give the desired distressed/abraded/ used look.

Denim Washing Plant Machine Manufacturer

Address : Door No-320/5, Mysore Road, Bangalore - 560026, Karnataka, India 
Phone : 91-80-26743737/26749238/26746983/26745885/26743878/26745588/26750671/2674373 
Mobile :             +919845398852 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting            +919845398852      end_of_the_skype_highlighting       
Fax : 91-80-26746042/26746043 


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