Friday, 21 October 2011

Start a Wooden Door Making Plant


(148). Start a Wooden Door Making Plant

Doors are multifunctional entryway coverings that are found around the world in homes, businesses, and structures of all sizes. Doors can be customized or carved to suit a wide array of architectural styles, and can outlast the homes or buildings they are affixed to, in some cases. Many wood doors are side-hinged; however, revolving and top-hinged doors also exist. Doors are also some of the oldest objects of human civilization. Archaeologists have documented the existence of doors, including wooden doors, in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome; and in ancient China.In ancient Egypt, an African civilization that began around 3150 B.C., the existence of “false” wooden doors was recorded in tomb paintings. Egyptians used “false doors”, or imitation doors carved into tombs, to represent the deceased’s passage from the physical world to the world of the gods. Ancient Grecian and Roman doors, meanwhile, were functional; were usually constructed of stone, and featured many panels or folds. They resembled the folding wooden doors used on closets in modernity. 
Chinese door gods
Watercolor sketch courtesy of ChinaCulture.org
  

During some of the oldest Chinese civilizations, people placed great symbolic emphasis on doors, door knockers, and door decorations. Ancient Chinese door gods were thought to drive ghosts – and therefore, evil spirits – away from a structure or dwelling. Wood door hangings made of peach timber depicted these gods, and were displayed next to the door frames. Later Chinese hung ceremonial posters on their wooden doors to celebrate happy times, such as the Spring Festival and Chinese New Year. These hangings were thought to encourage good spirits to bless the coming months.
 The Chinese also introduced a critical component of modern wood door construction, mortise-and-tenon joinery. This technique, which involves fitting wooden door parts (or, other wooden structures) together using precision-cut square pegs and holes, is among the most durable construction techniques available. Ancient Chinese people created masterful pieces of woodworking thanks to this assembly technique.
 In Medieval Europe, wood doors were created by nailing planks together and strengthening them with iron hinges. These “fortress” –style wood doors were extremely durable, but very heavy. During the middle ages of civilization, various styles of wooden doors were featured on homes, buildings, and houses of worship. Wooden doors were installed on castles beginning in the 9th century of Roman civilization. In 2005, the skin-covered oak wood door that graces the entrance to Westminster Abbey in the U.K. – the oldest surviving Anglo Saxon door in Britain, dating back to the 11th century – made headlines when it was found to be covered in animal hide, not human skin, as was previously thought.
 In the 15th century Middle East, elaborate wooden doors were featured on buildings in Egypt and Iran. Some mosque doors in Cairo featured especially elaborate carvings and woodwork. During the European Renaissance, wooden door carvings, especially French and German woodwork, became a high art. One of the finest examples of detailed woodwork from this period is in France, on the south door of the Beauvais cathedral, which features elaborate, raised-figure wood carvings. Many highly stylized wood doors from this period of history have endured to present day.
Georgian wood door
Image courtesy of Chester 360
 During the early days of American civilization, several styles of wood doors were installed in homes. One type, the Z-door, consisted of solid wood slabs supported across their width by z-shaped bracing that served as a truss. This style used an early board-and-batten door assembly technique. The Dutch door, invented by early Hudson River valley settlers, was a side-hinged door with top and bottom halves that opened separately. These wood doors allowed fresh air in the top half while preventing small children and pets from escaping; they could also be used in stables to corral livestock.  

18th- and 19th-century architecture featured a wide variety of new wood door styles. The Federal door, also called the Adams door, featured simple, elegant panel design, and fanlights, or semicircular glass windows, above the door frames. Less ornate but still loved was the Georgian door, a simple, paneled type of wood door, often outfitted with a brass knocker. Classical revival wood doors, based on ancient Roman architectural ideals, and Greek revival wood doors, based on ancient Greek architectural ideals, were also popular styles. Some homes from the 19th century, especially Victorian homes, featured Gothic revival doors, which consist of a paneled door set into an arched frame. 18th- and 19th-century wood doors are featured on many homes from that period, and have been used in many 20th- and 21st-century newer homes.


Function

In ancient times, including ancient Egyptian and Chinese civilizations, doors carried symbolic meaning. They played major roles in funeral rituals and celebrations. Elaborate church, mosque, and synagogue doors are emblematic of various religious traditions. Today, wood doors have a variety of uses, including ornamental and practical uses. They are noise barriers, weatherproofing devices, and safety and privacy enhancers.
Victorian cast-metal doorknobs
Image courtesy of ThisOldHouse.com
Most modern wood doors are side-hinged and are outfitted with metal handles, called doorknobs. Doors can be fitted with locks and deadbolts for added safety, or they can be paired with glass screen doors for added insulation. Some wood doors in urban areas are fitted with mail slots -- or, metal flaps that can open to receive small objects -- to prevent mail theft and damage. Homeowners with pets who come and go can install catflaps, or small, hinged partitions set in the bottoms of doors, to allow their cats or small dogs to roam. Many interior wood doors are installed as part of a home redecoration plan, or to designate a "quiet" area of the house such as a study or nursery.

Privacy and safety

Cities across the world are home to a major portion of the Earth’s population. In cities, doors are used to enhance privacy, especially for those who live in row-homes or other close quarters. The highest-quality wood doors offer sound barrier properties, which allow homeowners to enjoy quiet even in bustling city centers.
 Heavy wooden doors also provide good protection against crime, especially breaking and entering, theft, and homicide. If doors are made of solid wood, rather than thin veneers, they are less likely to be kicked in. Doors that are fitted with solid locks, deadbolts -- and in some high-crime areas, iron bars -- provide an additional layer of protection. Criminals in urban areas are less likely to risk getting caught if they must struggle to enter a home.


Weather-proofing

 Genuine wood doors provide excellent weather-proofing options for homeowners. If a door is constructed of solid wood, with no gaps or cracks, it is less likely to let in hot or cold air, or snow, rain, and hail. Doors protect house interiors – and homeowner possessions – from a variety of weather conditions.
 The weather-proofing power of a wood door can be enhanced by installing a door sweep. This device is a metal strip placed along the bottom of a door that provides physical barrier against outside air, and is affixed to the door using screws or bolts. Door sweeps seal off the bottoms of wood doors, where there are often gaps, effectively weather-proofing the home. Flashing material is also used to improve the weather-proofing properties of doors. Usually, flashing material is made of metal, rubber, or plastic composites. It can be purchased on discount at hardware stores, and is fairly simple to install.
 Cracks around a door can be sealed using weather-stripping. Unchecked cracks can lead to water damage from rain, snow, or hail, which can cause a natural wood door to rot or deteriorate. Wood doors that are cut precisely to fit their frames are less likely to require weatherproofing.


Climate control

 Sometimes, doors are used to enhance home climate control. Heavy wooden doors actually enable home HVAC systems to work more effectively because they seal off drafts and block heat. Some wood doors are paired with screen doors to enable air circulation. Homeowners might opt to install louvered (slatted) doors in-between rooms to promote air circulation in the home.
 Well-made wood doors have a high R-value. An R-value is a measure of a building material’s resistance to heat flow. The R-value of wood doors can be improved by custom-measuring doors to fit in entryways precisely; by pairing doors with double-glazed, thermal glass windows, or by installing weather-stripping around the door frame. As global climate change becomes a concern, doors with high R-values likely will be used more frequently in new home construction. 

Pest and animal control

 In some parts of the world, dangerous diseases are transmitted by pests and animals. For example, malaria is still an enormous concern in Africa, and installing solid wood doors can help protect home-dwellers from mosquitoes that transmit the disease. In urban areas, solid wood doors fitted with weather-stripping can protect city-dwellers from roaches, ants, and other infestations. In rural areas, solid wood doors can prevent pets from escaping, or livestock from entering. The most suitable doors for pet and pest control are measured to fit door frames precisely. 

Aesthetics


A wide variety of custom wood doors can be created to suit many periods and styles of home architecture. Wood doors can be painted, carved, or fitted with panes of thermal glass or stained glass. Many custom metal finishing options are available as well, including ornate wrought-iron hinges; elaborate brass door knockers, and countless styles of custom doorknobs. Some doors are installed purely for decoration.

Door construction

Mortise and tenon joinery
Image courtesy of Woodworker's Journal
 Wood doors are framed by solid wooden boards called rails. Most doors have top rails, bottom rails, and two side rails, which are called stiles. Depending upon the style of wood door, vertical center rails, called mullions, and horizontal center rails (if used to hold the lock, this is called the lock rail) are present. Panels, which are flat or recessed pieces of wood, are typically used in the centers of real wood doors.
 Wood doors are constructed using either mortise-and-tenon joinery, which consists of custom-cut wood pieces fitted into custom-cut wood slots; or less-expensive methods like dowel rods, nails, or glue. Some doors feature one or more panels of glass set in their centers. The wood strips used to hold this glass in place are called muntins, or grilles.

 Door materials


 Pure wood doors can be constructed of various domestic or imported hardwoods. Some types of wood commonly used in doors are:
  • Maple
  • Teak
  • Oak
  • Cherry
  • Walnut
  • Ash
  • Mahogany
The cost of a wood door will depend upon whether it is crafted completely of wood. The type of wood, including its origin – domestic or import – and its grade, affect price. The method of joinery used also affects price. Mortise-and-tenon doors cost more than doors fashioned with dowel rods, nails or glue. The trade-off is that mortise-and-tenon doors last much longer.
 Wood for doors is graded based upon how many long cuts of usable timber can be harvested from each tree. Wood grade influences door price because it determines how many doors can be made from one tree, and how much wood waste will be generated for the manufacturer.
US hardwood lumber grades
Image courtesy of American Hardwood Export Council
 The wood grading scale varies between nations. American wood used to make doors is ranked as either "upper grade" or "common grade," and within each grade, several more-specific categories exist. Very long pieces of timber are needed to construct wood doors, so each door will vary slightly in appearance because of natural grains or marks in the wood. However, in door manufacturing, certain wood irregularities, such as knots, nicks, or pockets of dry rot, are unacceptable.

Wood doors vs. synthetic doors

Some wood doors are not actually made of wood. To save costs, door manufacturers will place cardboard panels inside faux-wood coatings made partially of plastic compounds. Others will use wood frames, but fill the body of the door with fiberglass or resin. Still others will use false-wood-grain synthetic veneers to cover door frames
 Though they are more expensive, genuine wood doors outlast synthetic doors. Real wood is far more likely to withstand the warping and cracking that can damage synthetic doors and make them less weatherproof. Synthetic doors are also easier to destroy during a breaking-and-entering attempt or a domestic dispute, and are more likely to sustain damage from pets or children. A wood door provides a superior return-on-investment.

Door types

Besides countless period revival styles, several general classes of side-hinged wood doors exist. These styles can be used inside or outside the home.
Louvered doors: This door style consists of dozens of slender wooden slats, or louvers, centered in a wood frame. The louvered wooden door style is effective at managing air flow and temperature shifts between rooms. The style can also be used outdoors, and is especially effective when installed on a porch or deck, where air circulation into the home might be desired.
Panel doors: This door style is probably one of the best known; it includes classic period doors like the Georgian and Federal styles. The door can be constructed of one, two, or more panels, and panels can be either recessed or raised. This wood door style can function as an interior or exterior door. It is well-suited for exterior use because it is very solid. The mission-style door, which consists of alternating raised and recessed panels, is a modern American interpretation of the traditional panel door, and dates back to the 1940s and 1950s.
Panel-style wood doors
Images courtesy of Next Door

True divided-light doors: This door style consists of a wooden frame with multiple glass panes set inside it. The glass panes are joined together with wood muntins, or grilles, which are essentially tiny wood slats. If this style is fitted with thermal windows to raise its R-value, it can provide excellent climate control indoors or outdoors.

Measuring and installing doors

 Doors must be measured precisely to function well and to look good. Before measuring a space for a door, weather-stripping and interior trim must first be removed. The width of a door can be determined by measuring straight across from left to right using a straight, firm tape measure. The height can be measured by running the tape measure from top to bottom and recording the figure. Homeowners should subtract anywhere between 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch from the height to allow for floor or carpeting clearance. A level can be used for accuracy. The door can also be removed from its frame, and the frame can be measured from left to right and from top to bottom.
 Many modern doors come only in pre-determined, standard sizes. Some doors are sold as slab-only, meaning that the door is sold by itself; while other doors, called pre-hung doors, are sold with frames. To fit doors to older houses, custom trimming might be necessary. Most doors are attached using hinges, and the door thickness is often altered (trimmed) to accommodate the installation of hinges.

Customizations

 Wood doors can be customized in various ways so they suit interior décor or a specific architectural period. Painting, lacquering, or staining doors are low-cost and effective ways to customize them; and these techniques can help preserve the natural wood. Some custom wood door manufacturers can inlay thermal glass or stained glass work in the door frame, or can cut and carve doors into unique shapes or designs based upon customer sketches or AutoCAD drawings.
Period-specific and custom door hardware is available as well. Many different types of metal hinges are available, as well as various styles of bolts, latch systems, door knobs, door knockers, and peep-holes. Even the door frame can often be customized. Before customizing a door, a homeowner should survey the color and style schemes of rooms or the home exterior; research what doors are appropriate to specific time periods, and consider what trends prevail in the neighborhood.

Wooden Door Manufacturer
Unique Machine & Tool Company
4232 E. Magnolia St. Phoenix, Arizona 85034
Phone: (602) 470-1911 Fax: (602) 470-1916
www.uniquemachine.com
It offers :

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