Monday, 24 October 2011

Start a Spice Oleo Resins Extraction Plant



(160). Start a Spice Oleo Resins Extraction Plant





















The use of spice oil and oleoresins from agricultural products like ginger, pepper, cardamom, turmeric and chillies  have now become common both in hotels and domestic kitchens.  The technology for extraction of oleoresins and oils from spices has been developed by Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore.  The technology has been successfully used on a commercial scale by a number of entrepreneurs licensed by the Corporation who are not only meeting the requirement in the country but also exporting the oleoresins to many of the developing as well as developed countries and earning a substantial amount of foreign exchange.  
Spice oleoresins are the concentrated liquid from the spices that reproduce the character of the respective spice fully. The spice oils are the oils distilled off from the spices at the initial stage before subject to solvent extraction. Spice oleoresins are largely used for flavoring of food particularly by large scale food processing and flavoring industries like meat canning, sauces, soft drinks, pharmaceutical preparations, perfumery and soap, tobacco, confectionery and bakery. The demand of spice oils and oleoresins in the developed countries is increasing day by day as more and more spicy snacks are being introduced by fast food chains with standardised tastes. The spice oils and oleoresins are specially suitable for such snacks in that they can be used very conveniently (without any handling of the raw spice like ginger, chilli, onion, etc.) and producing a standardised effect on taste. This is the reason practically all plants in India, numbering to more than twenty five are cent percent exporting their products to these nations. The demand is increasing and more and more plants are being commissioned for 100% export. The margins are high with the spice oil prices ranging between US $ 30 to 100 per Kg. made from equivalent raw material components of about US $ 1 to 5.
Salient features of the process :


The process produces oleoresins of international standards ( having solvent residues in oleoresins should not be more than 30 PPM.)
The process is ideally suitable for small scale operation
Spice oils are distilled out before subjecting to extraction so that final product can be standardized easily
If good raw materials are used spice oils will always be one of the co-products.
The spent meal obtained after removal of volatile and fixed oil can be dried and used in animal feed formulation.
Spice Oleoresins are essentially the concentrated liquid form obtained from spices. This spice derivative has the same character and property of the spice it is obtained from. Oleoresins are popularly used for food flavoring in the food processing industry..


The demand for these derivatives is on the rise in the global market and India too is cashing on this booming market. India is one of the leading producers and exporters of black pepper oleoresin. US is one of the chief importers of paprika and black pepper oleoresin. The demand of this product can be attributed to to a sharp rise in the snacks food and fast food industry for producing a standardized effect on taste. High concentration of oleoresins, makes them difficult to use in the food industry, unless they are diluted.  
These derivatives are sometimes combined with other spices and also used as a base for a number of seasonings. Oleoresins contain the aroma and flavor of the spice in a concentrated form, the form is usually viscous liquids or semisolid materials.
Given the varied agro-climatic conditions — tropical to sub-tropical to temperate — India is home to a wide variety of spices, the production of which is currently estimated at over 3.2 million tonne valued at over $4 billion. Most parts of the country grow one or other spices. While the ISO has notified as many as more 109 spices, a total of 52 have been brought under the purview of the Spices Board. That India, perhaps the world's largest producer, consumer, exporter and importer of a wide range of spices, is of course known. A significant part of the export is raw material in bulk form. Much of the processing takes place outside the country as a result of which the origin does not get the full benefit of value-addition.


While attempts for promotion of more and more processed and value-added spices continue, the country's presence in the world spice oils and oleoresins market is unmistakable. These value-added products enjoy excellent demand in the developed economies where they are used as food ingredients to enhance value and aroma of many foods. Importantly, they are standardised products, hygienic and of consistent quality.


Spice oils are volatile components present in most spices and provide the characteristic aroma of the spice. The oil is extracted by steam distillation and is often made to the specifications stipulated by the buyer depending on the varied end-use requirements of buyers. Spice oils are mostly used in food, cosmetics, perfumes and personal hygiene products such as toothpaste, mouthwash and aerosols, in addition to a variety of pharmaceutical formulations.


WIDE-RANGING APPLICATIONS



Mint oils are important value-added products that India produces and exports. India is the largest producer of mint oil and its derivatives. Because of its cooling effect, the product has wide-ranging applications including toothpaste, mouthwash, chewing gum, candy, hair oil, perfume, cigarettes and cosmetic products.


Spice oleoresins represent the complete flavour profile of the spice.


Manufacturing Process


Mini Concentrating Recovery System
Spice oleoresins are derived through non-aqueous volatile solvent extraction of powdered and dried spices. These spices are mixed with a suitable solvent and subsequently removed at the end of the process through evaporation. Spice oil, being volatile in nature, is distilled from the grounded spice and thereafter the wet spice, is dried and extracted with a solvent to produce oleoresins. The extraction method will also vary depending on the properties of the spice being extracted.

Use of Spice Oleoresin



Spice oleoresins find wide application in a number of industries for its strong flavor and aroma.


Hotel industriy 
Namkeens 
Ready made Masalas 
Pan Masala 
Tobacco 
Sauces
 


Spice Equivalency

 -         1 Kg of Oleoresin is equal to approx. 10-15 kg Raw Material varies item to items such as

Black Pepper Oleoresin          : -   1Kg OR      =   30 Kg Raw Material

Cardamom                             : -   1 Kg OR     =   40 Kg Raw Material

Cassia                                    : -   1 Kg OR   =    35 Kg Raw Material

Celery                                    : -   1 Kg OR    =     6 Kg Raw Material
                    
Curry Leaf                             : -   1 Kg OR    =    100 Kg Raw Material

Garlic                                    : -   1 Kg OR    =      10 Kg Raw Material

Chilli                                      : -   1 Kg OR    =    600 Kg Raw Material




BLACK PEPPER  (PIPER NIGRUM) 
Extraction
 


Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried & crushed peppercorn.


Description & History

A very important stimulant in the treatment of certain digestive disorders, constipation, loss of appetite. It helps cold and can be used as a sexual tonic, might help in diarrhea, flatulence, pains, and poor circulation.  As a Carminative it can be added to foods.  Occasionally used in blends for energetic enhancement.  Used for toothache and externally for joint and muscle aching.
  
Caution

It is Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, Irritant in high concentration due to its rubefacient properties. Use in moderation only.


CARDAMOM   (ELETTARIA  CARDAMOMUM )   

Extraction

The oils are distilled from the Plants.

Description & History

The Cardamom of commerce consists of the dried ripe fruit of Elettaria Cardamomum.  There are two varieties of this species.
1.  Var.  minuscule Burkhill, also called Alpha Minor.
2.  Var.  Bita Major,  also called Elettaria major, or Long Wild Cardamoms.

Cardamom fruit is official in most pharmacopoeias.  However, the United States and the British Pharmacopoeias confine the definition of cardamom to the decorticated seed only;  moreover, the British Pharmacopoeia requires that the seed must have been recently removed from the capsules.
Like the spice itself, the essential oil is employed widely for the flavoring of various food products, such as cakes, confectionery, ginger-bread, sausages, and pickles.  It finds use also in spicy table sauces, curry preparations, and in certain bitters and liqueurs.
Medicinally, the oil is frequently employed as an adjuvant or corrective of tonic, carminative, and purgative preparations.


CASSIA  (CINNAMOMUM CASSIA)



Extraction

Essential oil by steam distillation from the Plant.


Description & History

Cassia are contains medicinal qualities similar to cinnamon but its smell is sweeter and more pleasant.  It is used to give colors to many perfume blends.  In certain areas the primitive distillation apparatus, still used, contains copper piping which gives a red tone to the oil.  Rare because it comes from China and Vietnam .

Caution

Its too much used can be irritating to the skin.                                                                                                                                                                               
CELERY  (APIUM  GRAVEOLENS  L.)   



Extraction

Essential oil by steam distillation from the seeds .


Description & History

Celery is today widely cultivated in the temperate zones as an important garden crop, the bleached leaf stalks being relished as a popular vegetable.  The volatile or essential oil distilled from Celery seed is used extensively for flavoring purposes.  Celery seed located in Southern France ,  India , and lately also in California . Use of this oil – Canned soups and meats, sausages, and particularly in the flavoring of the popular celery salts, celery tonics, and culinary sauces.  Celery seed oil is one of the most valuable flavoring agents, imparting warm, aromatic, and pleasing notes to food products.


OLEORESIN CELERY :- The so – called Oleoresins of celery have in late years attained ever – increasing  popularity among food producers.  These oleoresins are prepared by extracting celery seed with volatile solvents, filtering and freezing the solutions, and driving off the alcohol in vacuo.  Depending upon the solvent used, the consistency, appearance and flavor of  the resulting oleoresins will vary.

CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM)  



Extraction

Essential oil by steam distillation from the Plant.


Description & History

Cinnamon is one of the best oils for circulation, especially during menopause.  It improves sexual function, increases sexual desire, and improves digestion and appetite.  Because it enhances circulation, it is very supportive of the heart.  It is empowering to the will.  Cinnamon bark oil has a high percentage of aldehyde and is not recommended for use on the skin as it can be irritating.  Cinnamon leaf oil has a very low percentage of aldehyde and is more suitable for use in liniments or message oils. 

Caution

Do not use in condition of high pitta ; will aggravate bleeding disorders; skin irritant in high dose; convulsive in high doses.                                                                                                                                                                            

CLOVE   (CAROPHYLLUS AROMATICUS)   
 


Extraction

Clove are actually the unexpanded flower buds of the clove tree.

Description & History

Centuries before Christ, envoys to the Han court of China held clove oil in their mouths to freshen their breath during audiences with the emperor.  Later, the oil was to serve as a  Protective agent against the bubonic plague.  Clove oil is one of the most effective antiseptics known, good for treating infections, especially colds and flu.  It is often an ingredient in commercially available mouthwashes and digestive tonics and will bring a welcome numbness if applied topically for toothache or sore gums.

Caution

All clove oils can cause skin & mucus membrane irritations, because of the eugenol content. Use in moderation, in very less dilution.

CORIANDER  (CORIANDRUM  SATIVUM)   



Extraction

The oil is distilled from the leaves.

Description & History

This fresh herb is also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, and is a favourite in Mexican food.  The essential oil is produced from the seed, is an antidote to hot food, very decongesting to the liver, and is a great reducer of fire and heat in the body.  It is thought to be an aphrodisiac because of its phyto-estrogen content.  It`s also a carminative, stimulating digestion.

Caution

Except high Vata with nerve tissue deficiency; may cause kidney irritation in high dose, do not take during  pregnancy.

FENNEL  (FOENICULUM  VULGARE)



Extraction

The oil is distilled from the roots.

Description & History

Fennel is another essential oil from the carrot family.  It is useful during pregnancy to prevent morning sickness, and is excellent for the traveler, helping to reduce or prevent sea sickness.  One of the most important carminative oils, it is useful for upset stomachs, gas, flatulence, indigestion and is traditionally used in Indian restaurants in herb form as an after dinner promoter of digestion.  It has been recommended for reducing stomach acidity and prevention of ulcers.


GARLIC   (ALLIUM SATIVUM)  



Extraction

Essential oil by steam distillation of the roots.

Description & History

The bulbs or cloves of the common garlic have been used since antiquity, particularly in Mediterranean Countries, as a popular prophylactic and curative against all kinds of intestinal ailments chronic infections of the stomach and the intestines, dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera, etc and even against arteriosclerosis and hyperpnea.  Phoenician sailors carried good stocks of garlic on their long sea voyages. Oil of garlic has lately come to be appreciated as a valuable flavoring agent, for use in all kinds of meat preparations, soups, canned goods, and table sauces.

GINGER  (ZINGIBER OFFICIANLIS)   



Extraction

The oil is distilled from the roots,  plants

Description & History

Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbs in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine.  Because of its digestive properties, it is without peer in cases of illness due to poor absorption and assimilation. Its wonderful for regulating the blood, for motion sickness, weight loss;  Its helpful in bringing any condition in to balance. For sea sickness, air sickness, or problems in balance use it on a small circular bandage behind the ear.  Light often adds it to her bath on cold mornings and to daily skin massage lotion in the winter.

Caution

Don’t use if inflammatory skin diseases, high fever, bleeding, or ulcers are present.

NUTMEG OIL   (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS)
 


Extraction

Essential oil by steam distillation or water distillation from the dried nutmeg seeds.


Description & History

May be useful in pains, aches, poor circulations, rheumatism, sluggish digestion, impotence, nervous fatigue, bacterial infection etc.   It is said to be very calming. When diffused before bedtime, nutmeg is said to promote dreamtime. Both oils and oleoresin are used in most major food categories, including alcoholic and soft drinks. 


Caution
Generally non-toxic, non-sensitizing & non-irritant.  But use only in moderation only. However, used in large doses it shows signs of toxicity such as nausea, stupor, and tachycardia, believed to be due to the myristcin content.


TURMERIC  (CURCUMA LONGA)   



Extraction

The oil is distilled from the Roots.


PROCESS
Spice oleoresins are obtained by solvent extraction of the powdered dried spices with a suitable solvent and subsequent removal of solvent. The volatile oil called spice oil is distilled out from the ground spices. The wet powdered spice free from volatiles are dried and then extracted with the solvent to remove the fixed oil and resinous material. The solvent is removed from the miscella by the solvent recovery system, dried and the extract is mixed with the dry spice oil to the required level to produce spice oleoresin and then the product is suitably packed.


NRDC



National Research Development Corporation, a Government of India Enterprise, is a premier technology transfer Corporation with four decades of experience. It has helped establish over one thousand projects in the small and medium scale sector. The supply of technologies and services to entrepreneurs extend both in the developing and developed countries like USA, Germany, Malaysia , Burma , Nepal, Senegal, Madagascar, Indonesia Philippines, Vietnam, Lanka, Kenya, Brazil, Bangladesh and Egypt.


Advantages of Indian technologies:



Low capital investment
High employment potential
Maximum use of local raw materials and manpower resources
Adaptable levels of sophistication
Services offered by NRDC


Process know-how
Pre-investment studies
Feasibility / project reports
Detailed engineering
Turn key projects
Equity capital participation
Training in operation of plants
Raw materials and products testing

National Research Development Corporation
( A Government of India Enterprise )
20-22, Zamroodpur Community Center
Kailash Colony Extension
New Delhi 110 048. India
Ph:             +91-11-26419904      , 26417821, 26480767, 26432627
Fax: 011-26231877, 26460506, 26478010
Website: www.nrdcindia.com
mail: write2@nrdcindia.com



Some of the machinery suppliers are
1. Flour Tech Engineers Pvt Ltd, 16/5, Mathura Road, Faridabad 121 002
Tel. No.: 2263017, 2291556, Fax: 2291556
2. Flavourite Foods & Services Pvt. Ltd, 208 Manas Bhavan, 11, RNT Marg, Indore 452 008
Tel. No. : 2527644, 5046509, Fax: 5040953
3. FMC Technologies Hong Kong Ltd, 2 Bhuvaneshwar Housing Soc, 
Pashan Road, Pune 411 008 Tel. No. : 5893700, Fax: 5893701
4. SS Engineering, B-24, Khanpur Extension, New Delhi 110 062, Ph: 26081475, 9810217935
5. Sahyog Steel Fabrication, 28 Bhojrajpara, Gondal 360 311
Tel. No. : 224075, Fax: 231375
6. Cowel Can Ltd, Industrial area, Post Barotiwala, Dist. Solan (HP)

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  12. Very useful, I would like to know one more thing, how much ginger needed for one kilo of essential oil
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