Saturday, 15 October 2011

Start a Aluminum Alloy Wheel Making Plant

(139) Start a Aluminum Alloy Wheel Making Plant
The steel wheel is a mechanical device, which provides rotary motion by means of a disk or circular frame revolving on an axis. The steel wheel can be used in heavy load and traction services. The size and contour of a specific wheel design is based on the load it must carry and the space limitations of the equipment on which it is used. The contour of the wheel is normally composed compose of five parts: the hub, plate, rim, tread and flange. Classifications based on the service to which the wheels are applied are defined as: 1. Industrial car wheels for use on various cars such as those used in mining, railroads and transfer cars; 2. Crane truck wheels, for use in traveling, gantry, bridge cranes and floor-type changing and drawing machines; 3. Railroad freight car wheels, used according to their capacity and application, and 4. Heavy duty wheels, for use under railroad and electric railway cars, rapid transit passenger cars and locomotives. Most wheels for railway or industrial services are manufactured either by forming a solid block of metal by a sequence of hot forging and rolling operation, or by casting them directly from liquid metal into their final shapes. Mechanically speaking, steel castings are considered inferior to hot forging and rolling products. The casting of steel is, however, the most direct method of producing a given shape. For this reason, this method provides the basis for a key industry.
Today, the steel wheel has been partially replaced by the aluminum alloy wheel on vehicles, and this trend is expected to continue and become more popular in the near future. The changeover has already been introduced in General Motors and Ford in the USA, where new vehicles with aluminum alloy wheels are now rolling off production lines. There are at least four good reasons why wheel industries now prefer to use aluminum alloy to replace wrought steel: 1. Aluminum alloy wheels are more loads worthy. As 1kg of unsparing weight is generally equivalent to 10-15kgs of spring weight, and each 14’ aluminum alloy wheel is less than 2.5kgs., the four wheels under a typical car can handle loads of about 100-150kgs of extra weight (Unsprung weight means the weight put on the tire wheel, suspension or wheel area); 2. Excellent brake system. Aluminum thermal conductivity is about three times higher than that of steel This physical property gives the wheel better brake reliability and longer life than the steel wheel; 3. It is fuel-efficient. Basically, a 1kg loads decrease on a car will raise mileage 5-8 meters for every liter of gas used. In other words, fuel-efficiency is raised about 8.5% for every 10% reduction in car weight. The one-third to one-fifth work saved will surely prolong the service life of the car engine, and; 4. Suspension improvements. The suspension system of aluminum alloy wheels is capable of responding much more quickly to changing surfaces and road conditions. This increased traction can improve vehicle acceleration, maneuverability and brake performance. It is particularly noticeable while driving at high speeds or on rough roads.
It is apparent that more and more traction services and transportation industries are catching on to the idea of using aluminum alloy wheels to increase the quality of their products so as to seize more market share, Therefore, the establishment of a Taiwan supplied aluminum alloy wheel plant in any country would prove to be a wise investment.

2. General Processing Information
2.1 Flow Chart:

2.2 Process Description: 
2.2.1 The aluminum ingot is melted in the proper uniform temperature arc-type electric holding furnace. After the molten aluminum ingot has attained the desired chemical composition, it is tapped (procured) from the furnace into the top of an open bottom mold in continuous casting machine in which the casting mold has been preheated in the hydraulic die casting machine and the temperature is high enough for casting. The size and design of the casting mold should have accurate dimensions to meet the requirements of casting equipment and techniques. After the aluminum liquid solidifies, it is continuously withdrawn from the mold to produce the semi-finished, rough wheel shape.
2.2.2 The rough aluminum alloy wheel is then transferred to the drilling machine where the punching of the hole in the center is carried out on the press and the burr around the edge of the wheel is also trimmed out.
2.2.3 After the die casting, hub punching, burr trimming, which complete the hot forming operation, the aluminum alloy wheels are conveyed directly into a tunnel type continuous solution furnace where they are heat treated to a uniform temperature. The wheels emerge from this furnace are conveyed to the quenching unit where they are quenched to harden and thereby increase resistance to wear. The time of quenching varies depending on the thickness and diameter of the wheels. The time of quenching varies depending on the thickness and diameter of the wheels. After quenching, the wheels are conveyed through the age furnace where they are reheated and maintained at the proper tempering temperature so as to strengthen the duration of the material reaching to 220MPA, elongation to 70% and hardness between HV80100.
2.2.4 After the above treatment, the rough aluminum alloy wheels can enter the machining steps to obtain the final dimensions that meet specified requirements. Those steps include refinishing the center hole, polishing the front side of it, then vent hole drilling, treading, flanging, bore machining, rim profiling, inner side rear copy machining, leak testing, defeating, spray painting, baking, finish copy machining and bush inserting.
2.2.5 The wheels are then passed down to the automatic inspection line where they are checked for correct rim circumference, and thickness, for the thickness and height of the flange, for concentricity and diameter of the bore, location of hub with reference to rim, hub wall thickness, rotundity, and plate thickness. The rims of the wheels of the wheels are ultrasonically inspected to evaluate their internal quality.

3. Plant Description
3.1 Production Capacity: 
The plant equipped with the machinery and equipment outlined in section 3.4 of this proposal, operating 16 hours (2 shifts) per day, 25 days per month, should be able to produce 10,000pcs of aluminum alloy wheels per month. The wheel size can be 12”, 13”, 14”, 15”.

3.2 Raw Materials:
Aluminum Alloy Ingot A356.2
Al-Sr-Sl, Kao-Wool
Magnesium 99.9%
Trichloromethane, Paint
Fly-Wire, Cruciable, Day395
Taper Bush
Dy-Cote-33, Cov-12, Cov-52
Center cap
Degasser-990, Grain-Refining Flux
Taper Nut
Laddle Dip R-20, Na Powder
Taper Bolt
A1-T1-B, Cov-66
Name Plate
Aluminum Strontium Silicon 10%

3.3 Manpower Required:
Job Classification
General Manager
Inventory Controller
Quality Controller
Tool Maker & Maintenance
Electric Technician
Casting Labor (3 shifts)
Heat Treatment Labor (3 shifts)
Cutting Labor (2 shifts)
Drilling Labor (2 shifts)
Machining Labor (2 shifts)
Finish Labor (2 shift)

3.4 Machinery and Equipment:

Hold Furnace with Testing Machine
Hydraulic Die Casting Machine with Sand Blast Machine
Heavy Duty Precision Lathe Machine with Conveyor
Drilling Machine with Hydraulic Chuck
Solution Furnace with Blower
Structure Unit for Heat Treatment Equipment
Age Furnace with Blower
Shot Hanger Blast Machine
Automatic Turning Machine
Drill Vent Machine
Vertical Copy Lathe Machine with Chuck
Rear Copy Lathe Machine with Chuck
Leakage Testing Machine
Multi-Spindle Drill Machine
Defat Machine with Cooling System
Painting Booth with Compressor
Finish Copy Lathe Machine with Chuck
Hydraulic Press for Bush Inserting
Painting Booth for Clear with Pallet
Universal Wheel Balancing Machine
Dynamic Radial Fatigue Test Equipment
Universal Tensile Strength Test Equipment
Air Compressor (60HP)
Cantilever Drilling Machine
Vertical Type Universal Milling Machine
Band Saw
Inspecting Graplate
Cooling Tower
Oil Furnace
Impack Test Equipment
Dynamic Corner Fatigue Test Equipment
3.5 Accessories
3.5.1 Tools and Cutters for one year use:
Round File, Half Round File, and Flat File.
Pliers, Digital Stamper, Letter Stamper.
Taper Shank Twist Driller, Two Step Twist Driller
Cutter for Auto Turning Machine, Finishing Driller
Cutter for Vertical Copy Lathe Machine
Cutter for Heavy Duty Precision Lathe
Cutter For Rear and Front Copy Lathe 
Spray Gun
Packing Machine
3.5.2 Gage for Q.C. Use:
Offset gage, Plug gage, Caliper, Indicators for Magnetic Stand.
Portable Hardness Tester, Valve Thickness Gage, Type and Rim Tape Gage.
C-Frame Indicator, Current Transformer, Potential Transformer, Lighting Panel.
3.5.3 Electrical Control Panel and lighting Panel:
Metal Clad cubicle, Non-fuse Breaker, Ammeter.
Ammeter Transfer Switch Voltmeter, Voltmeter Transfer Switch, Power Factor Switch.
Static Condenser, Current Transformer, Potential Transformer, Lighting Panel.

3.6 Utilities: 
Electric Power: 1200KW
Water Consumption: 750M2/Day

3.7 Area of Land and Building
Area of Land: 4000 M2
Office and Dormitory: 500M2

3.8 Responsibilities of Investors: 3.8.1 All civil engineering foundation and masonry work.
3.8.2 All utilities covering water, power, steam, lightening, cable , base concrete construction.
3.8.3 Factory building: water tower, reservoir.
3.8.4 Steel structure to support machine or equipment.
3.8.5 Local labors
3.8.6 Supplementary materials and facilities required for installation or test run such as bolts, & nuts, welding rod, cutting gas, general tools, chemicals.
3.8.7 Direct and indirect materials.
3.8.8 Final painting work on material after test run.

3.9 Plant Layout:


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