Thursday, 20 October 2011

Start a Khoa Making Business by Machine

(146). Start a Khoa Making Business by Machine

Khoa manufacturing plant in technical collaboration with National Dairy ResearchInstitute, Karnal. Khoa is an important ingredient in the manufacturing of milk based sweets.

Khoa is an important ingredient in the manufacture of milk based sweets. It is used for manufacturer of different varieties of sweets like burfi, kalakand, gulab jamun, peda etc. In addition to sweet making it has also application in industries like confectioneries and small scale food industries.
Depending on the quality of milk about 1 Kg of khoa is produced from 4 to 6 Kg of milk and with this assumption the total consumption of this product is estimated to be around 9 million tons / annum ( around 5.5 % of total indigenous milk production). Presently, khoa is made in jacketed kettles or open trays (‘Kadai’) which have a number of disadvantages. 

The major Disadvantages with the conventional method.
  • Batch process and not suitable for large scale production
  • Unsanitary operation
  • Spillage of the product which makes the floor slippery causing accident
  • Bulky equipment due to low heat transfer co-efficient.
  • Formation of hard scale of milk protein on heating surface resulting low efficiency
  • Long residence time in the equipment causing greater risk of spoilage of the product
  • Excessive strain and fatigue on the operator
  • Keeping in mind the disadvantages, a new machine has been designed by National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal on the basis of heat transfer and hydrodynamics in non-Newtonian mechanically agitated thin film. It is a cascade system comprising of two horizontal straight sided thin film scraped surface heat exchangers. The equipment is fabricated and tested for the manufacture khoa from standardised buffalo milk. In this heat exchanger, milk is concentrated to about 40% total solid which then flows into the second heat exchanger. 
The newly designed has several advantages like :

  • High heat transfer co-efficient
  • Total absence of fouling of heat transfer surface
  • Short residence time which results in high production capacity
  • Product is confined to thin film on the heating surface and consequently hold volume is extremely small
  • Adaptable to easy automation and cleaning in place (CIP).
  • Hygienic operation
  • Uniform product quality

The equipment can be fabricated in a workshop with stainless sheet. The accessories are attached with the equipment.

Khoa is obtained by heating and condensing milk in an open tank. Khoa comes in various textures like granular texture, fine texture and khoa with low moisture content. It is prepared both from cow's milk and water buffalo's milk and is used as base for many Indian sweets. Normally it is white or pale yellow color.
Khoa is prepared both manually and mechanically. Different methods are involved in different level of production of khoa like: tray method for rural applications, roller process for small entrepreneurs and spray drying for large scale production. The equipments used for preparing khoa are:
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Open Pan
  • Pumping Tube
  • Rotors
  • Blades
  • Evaporators
  • Displacement pump
In modern dairy industry, through pressure-driven membrane separation processes lot of dairy products are produced. Applying reverse osmosis, khoa is processed. In industrial production of khoa, milk is dried in a big can using heat exchanger system. The capacity of the system depends upon the mass-flow rate of milk, steam pressure, rotor speed and number of blades.
Concentration of milk in an open pan is energy intensive. Double effect evaporators or pressure driven membrane separation process of reverse osmosis is considered as more feasible than open can drying because concentration of milk in an open can is more energy intensive.


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