Saturday, 29 October 2011

Start a Peanut Butter Manufacturing


(174) Start a Peanut Butter Manufacturing

Since its invention in the late 1800's, peanut butter has become a healthy staple in the kitchen cabinets of most households. Peanuts themselves have been used for centuries in a vast variety of foods and cultures. Doctors looked to manufacturers to help produce a product to act as a protein supplement for patients who could not eat meat due to their declining dental health.
Peanuts have considerable nutrients and are consumed in different forms all over the worldsince long. Peanut butter is one such product consumed in large quantities especially in western countries since many years. It is not very popular in India and the domestic marketis dominated by milk butter. Hence, the promoters must target growing export market and should be financially sound. The technology is available indigenously and it is advisable toengage a technical consultant to ensure quality. Familiarity with export markets would be anadditional advantage.   
Peanut butter is a very caloric, yet very healthy food. In general, raw peanut butter (as in less refined) is better than refined, because it retains many of the beneficial nutrients found in the skin; in addition, processed peanut butter might contain added trans-fatty acids (which have been shown to increase the risk of cardiocirculatory diseases). A further risk is that when badly preserved, it can host the mold Aspergillus flavus, that produces aflatoxin (a very toxic and carcinogenic substance), so your best bet is to always go with natural peanut butter.

Peanut butter contains fairly high quantities of dietary fiber, amounting to about 8%, which again helps in regulating both blood cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
Dietary fiber has also been shown to significantly reduce the risk of colo-rectal cancer (which is among the most common causes of death by cancer in civilized countries) and atherosclerosis (another common disease in the U.S. and Europe).

Proteins are present in high amounts (about 24% in weight), together with very important micro-nutrients such as Vitamin E, Vitamin B3 and large amounts of beneficial minerals such as iron, magnesium, potassium, copper and calcium.
Vitamin E is one of the most powerful liposoluble antioxidants, shown to significantly reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases; Vitamin B3 (also known as Niacin) is a water-soluble vitamin that aids in the recovery of cell DNA damage (thus protecting from cancer) and in improving sexual bodily functions by assuring the proper secretion of sexual hormones.
The minerals peanut butter contains are in variable amount (raw peanut butter with crushed skin contains much higher amounts than refined "nut-only" butter): iron is essential for the correct functioning of your red blood cells, while calcium promotes healthy bones and shields against muscle spasms.
Although not among the richest foods in potassium, peanut butter still contains fairly good amounts of it, and research has indicated that diets rich in potassium reduce the risk of hypertension (bananas are, however, a better source of potassium, try making a banana and peanut butter sandwich!).

In a test conducted during 20 years, on 80,000 female subjects by the Nurses' Health Study, it was observed that women who eat least 1 ounce of nuts, peanuts or peanut butter each week have a 25% lower risk of developing gallstones. This quantity can easily be reached by eating one peanut butter sandwich per week!
According to the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, the niacin contained in peanuts, when eaten regularly, provides protection against Alzheimer's disease.
The study was carried on 3000 elder men (65 or older) from Chicago, who were interviewed about their diet and subsequently tested for cognitive skills: those getting 22mg of niacin/day were 70% less likely to have developed Alzheimer's disease than those consuming 13 mg/day.

In addition to this, peanut butter contains much higher quantities of antioxidants than apples or carrots.
All things considered, peanut butter deserves a place in a healthy diet for the vast range of important nutrients it contains.
Because of its high fat and caloric content, however, some doctors argue that obese people should consume only little amounts of it: there is a lot of controversy about this, and there are many studies claiming that eating nuts more than twice a week actually reduces the risk of weight gain.

One of these studies was published on the journal Obesity, it involved 8865 adult men and women in Spain and was carried out during a 28-month period: the subjects who ate nuts at least twice a week were 31% less likely to gain weight (> 5kg) than the others.


Peanut butter is an ideal substitute for milk butter. It is a low calorie, high protein product. Compared to milk butter, its price is very competitive. But it has not yet become popular inour country and is rarely used by individual consumers. Gujarat and Maharashtra are thepreferred locations in view of good quality peanuts cultivated in Gujarat and two well developed ports being available for exports.   
2.2 Quality standards and compliance 
BIS has laid down quality norms vide IS 9037:1979. Compliance under the PFA Act is 
Indian peanuts (especially Saurashtra variety of Bold & Jawa) are popular all over the world with large exports every year. But unfortunately, our market share is primarily confined toraw peanuts and value-added products like blanched & roasted peanuts or peanut butterhave very negligible contribution. There is only one unit manufacturing peanut butter in Gujarat. Consumption of peanut butter is yet to pick up in the country and the project must concentrate on foreign buyers. Peanut butter is very popular in the USA, the UK, Holland,Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, South East Asian and Gulf countries. These are all 
very large and growing markets and can be tapped as majority of them import substantial quantity. There must be very strict quality control. Around 80% of sale has to be by way of  exports and the promoters may like to have registration as an Export Oriented Unit (EOU).

It is possible to buy raw peanuts instead of shelled peanuts or peanut pods. But it is 
advisable to install groundnut shelling plant to ensure quality of the all-important input 
which determines the ultimate quality of butter. The manufacturing process is briefly 
described hereunder.
1) Groundnut Pre-cleaning & Shelling
Good quality groundnut pods are sorted out and destoned before shelling them in openers.
2) Peanut Grading
Shelled peanuts are graded according to sizes to ensure only big or bold peanuts are taken up 
for process.
3) Peanut Roasting & Blanching
This is a critical stage. Roasting is done at around  160 C for 40-60 minutes depending upon 
the moisture contents. Roasting reduces water contents to around 1% which increases the 
shelf life of peanuts and helps develop flavour. After roasting, peanuts are cooled and then 
blanched (removal of outer red skin). After blanching each peanut is inspected to remove 
discoloured (grey or black) nuts.
4) Grinding
Peanuts are then ground in peanut butter mill in two stages to produce fine and creamy 
butter. The outlet temperature is around 65-75 C. All ingredients like salt, sugar and 
stabilisers are added during this process.

5) De-aeration
Air is incorporated into peanut butter during milling and subsequently it is removed in a 
6) Cooling
A scraped surface heat exchanger is used for cooling. The outlet temperature depends upon 
the type of stabiliser used

Filling and Packing
Peanut butter is filled in Pet Jars or metal drums as per the instructions of the buyer. 
Immediately after filling, the jars are vibrated to remove any remaining air bubbles. After 

keeping jars or drums for around 35-40 hours at around 20 C, the peanut butter sets 
completely and can be despatched.
Recovery from groundnut shells or pods is 55% HPS groundnuts, 22% husk and balance 23% 
are splits or kapchi. Roasting of peanuts and removal of discoloured peanuts results in 
further waste/loss of 5%. The process flow chart is as under:

5.1 Land and Building
Land of around 2,000 sq.mtrs. with built-up area of 1000 sq.mtrs. could accommodate main 
production area, storage, packing, utility room, office along with testing laboratory, toilet 
blocks and security cabin. Half of the building should have height of 25' so that elevators can 
be taken at a desirable height and bags of groundnut shells can be stacked. Asbestos sheet 
roofing would reduce the overall cost. Land may cost Rs. 7.00 lacs whereas construction cost 
is assumed to be Rs. 30.00 lacs.

 Plant and Machinery
Since the products are to be exported, the production capacity has to be commensurate. The 
plant would operate for 8 months and hence actual working would be about 200 days. Hence, 
it is advisable to install groundnut shelling capacity of 10 tonnes per shift, blanching and 
roasting capacity of 5 tonnes per shifts, blanching and roasting capacity of 5 tonnes per shift 
and peanut making capacity of 5 tonnes per shift. 

Peanut butter manufacturers receive the fresh peanuts and begin the process of turning them into peanut butter. The peanuts are first placed into a hot air roaster which raises them to a temperature of 240 degrees Celsius. The oven rocks back and forth to make sure the peanuts roast at an even pace, turning them from white to a light brown color.
After roasting, the peanuts are cooled at room temperature, but at a fast paste. Suction fans are used to pull the warm air out of the room. The quick cooling process keeps the peanuts from continuing to cook and helps to ensure that the natural oils will remain in the peanut.
Once roasted and cooled the peanuts are placed in a blancher machine. The blancher machine removes the outer skins by lightly rubbing the peanuts between two belts. The two kernels of each nut are then split and the heart in the middle is removed. The heart of the nut is not used in peanut butter because it is too bitter.
No waste is created in the process of blanching and shelling the peanut. The skins are passed on to farmers who in turn include the excess in pig feed. The hearts are given or sold to manufacturers of bird food!
The roasted and split peanuts quickly find themselves in a large stainless steel container. From there, the nuts are dropped into a grinder where they are ground into a paste at a reasonable pace. Care is taken to not grind the peanuts too quickly as doing so would produce heat and allow the peanuts to begin cooking again.
Additional ingredients are added to the ground peanuts in order to create the peanut butter we all know and love. They include salt, sugar, and hydrogenated vegetable oil. The hydrogenated vegetable oil is considered a stabilizer as it keeps the natural peanut oil from separating from the peanut butter and rising to the top of the jar. No artificial ingredients or preservatives are ever added to peanut butter. Oddly enough, peanut butter is one of few foods that will never need refrigeration.
Mixing the peanut butter paste heats it to approximately 60 degrees Celsius. Before jarring, the paste is cooled back down to 38 degrees. Once the machines fill the jars with peanut butter paste they are moved to the capping machine. The caps themselves are pre-prepared with aluminum seals inside. The caps are placed on the jars, which are then heated. The heating process causes the aluminum to fall to the top of the jar, where it forms a tight seal. Another machine will then print the production and expiration dates on the jar. Unopened containers of peanut butter will stay fresh for up to a year.
Peanut butter is known as a healthy food. The tasty paste is packed with vitamins, protein, and minerals. While peanut butter does contain fat, it is NOT a source of cholesterol. A large percentage of the fat found in peanut butter (80%) is unsaturated, or good fat. The other 20% of fat is transfat, or bad fat, and comes from the oil used as a stabilizer in the mixing process. It's possible to avoid the transfat by purchasing natural peanut butter, processed without the hydrogenated vegetable oil. The peanut oil will separate and float to the top of the jar, but mixing the oil back into the peanut butter will quickly solve that problem.
The production of peanut butter enjoys a notably high standard of quality. The law states that peanuts must make up at least 90% of the final peanut butter product. The law also mandates that no artificial sweeteners, colors or preservatives are to be included. While other "peanut butter spreads" exist in today's market, all pale in comparison to a jar of all natural peanut butter!

How Peanut Butter is Made...... - YouTube Aug 2007 - 5 min - Uploaded by Triwood1973
A video showing the process of making peanut butter in a factory. ...Add to. How to make a peanut butter sandwichby .

Some of the machinery suppliers are

1. Shreeji Nut Co, Jam Kandorna 360 405
2. Parmar Engg. Co, Jasdan, Gujarat
3. John Fowler & Co Ltd, Bangalore
4. Forsberg Agritech (I) Ltd, Makarpura, Vadodara
5. Brimco Engg. Works, M24/1, Street No 9, Anand Parbat Indl. Area, 
New Delhi 110 005, Phone: 25726347, 6178 Fax:22145040
6. Osaw Agro Inds. Pvt. Ltd., PO Bag No 5, Osaw Complex, Jagadbri Road,
Ambala Cantonment - 133 001. Phone: 2699167, 354, 547, Fax No 2699018
7. Fowler Westrup India (P) Ltd., Plot No 250, Bommasandra Indl. Est, Ph-3, 
Bangalore 562 158. Ph: 2783299, Fax: 27832990
8. Harvest Sortmac Shosha Pvt Ltd,  Nutech Vikas, No.6, 1st Avenue, 100 Feet Road,
Ashoknagar, Chennai 600 083 .  Ph: 24717588, Fax: 24717688


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